This Week in History

HISTORY, 5 Sep 2016

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

TWH logo history

Sep 5-11

QUOTE OF THE WEEK:

“We must let go of the life we have planned, so as to accept the one that is waiting for us.” – Joseph Campbell

 

SEPTEMBER 05

TODAY IS THE INTERNATIONAL DAY OF CHARITY

2014  Ukrainian troops and separatist forces have halted fighting in eastern Ukraine in accordance with a cease-fire agreement between Ukraine, Russia and the rebel forces.

Ukraine Crisis:

1997  Mother Teresa of Calcutta dies.

Mother Teresa and Her Biography:

Controversies:

1995  France performs nuclear test at Mururoa Atoll, South Pacific.

France’s Nuclear Test on September 6, 1995:

Mururoa:

History of France Nuclear Tests in the Pacific:

France’s Nuclear Tests:

1991  The current international treaty defending indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989, comes into force.

1990  Sri Lankan Civil War: Sri Lankan Army soldiers slaughter 158 civilians.

Sri Lankan Civil War:

History of the Sri Lankan Civil War:

Timelines of Sri Lankan Civil War:

Liberation of Tigers of Tamil Eelam (a.k.a. Tamil Tigers):

History of Sri Lanka:

Sri Lanka:

Foreign Relations of Sri Lanka:

Economy of Sri Lanka:

1986  Pan Am Flight 73 with 358 people on board is hijacked at Karachi International Airport.

1984  Western Australia becomes the last Australian state to abolish capital punishment.

1984  STS-41-D: The Space Shuttle Discovery lands after its maiden voyage.

1980  The Gotthard Road Tunnel opens in Switzerland as the world’s longest highway tunnel at 10.14 miles (16.32 km) stretching from Göschenen to Airolo.

197Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat begin peace discussions at Camp David, Maryland.

Camp David Accords of 1978:

1977  Voyager program: Voyager 1 is launched after a brief delay.

Voyager Program:

1977  Hanns Martin Schleyer is kidnapped in Cologne, West Germany by the Red Army Faction and is later murdered.

1975  Sacramento, California: Lynette Fromme attempts to assassinate U.S. President Gerald Ford.

1972  Munich massacre: A Palestinian terrorist group called “Black September” attacks and takes hostage 11 Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympic Games. Two die in the attack and nine die the following day.

Munich Massacre of September 1972:

1970  Jochen Rindt becomes the only driver to posthumously win the Formula One World Drivers’ Championship (in 1970), after being killed in practice for the Italian Grand Prix.

1970  Vietnam War: Operation Jefferson Glenn begins: The United States 101st Airborne Division and the South Vietnamese 1st Infantry Division initiate a new operation in Thừa Thiên–Huế Province.

Vietnam War in 1970:

Operation Jefferson Glenn:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

Anti-Viet Nam War Movement or Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War:

1969  My Lai Massacre: U.S. Army Lieutenant William Calley is charged with six specifications of premeditated murder for the death of 109 Vietnamese civilians in My Lai.

My Lai Massacre:

My Lai Massacre War Crimes:

1968  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1968:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk/Kazakhstan Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1961  The first conference of the Non Aligned Countries is held in Belgrade.

Non Aligned Movement:

1961  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

1960  Muhammad Ali (then Cassius Clay) wins the gold medal in the light heavyweight boxing competition at the Olympic Games in Rome.

Muhammad Ali (a.k.a. Cassius Clay):

Muhammad Ali and Conscientious Objection:

Conscientious Objection and Objector:

History of Conscientious Objection:

1960  The poet Léopold Sédar Senghor is elected as the first President of Senegal.

Léopold Sédar Senghor

Senegal:

History of Senegal:

Foreign Relations of Senegal:

Senegal and the United Nations:

Economy of Senegal:

Economy of Senegal:

1957  Cuban Revolution: Fulgencio Batista bombs the revolt in Cienfuegos.

Cuban Revolution:

Cuban Revolution Timelines:

Cuba or the “Republic of Cuba” (Repúlica de Cuba):

Foreign Relations of Cuba:

Cuba and USSR/Russia:

Cuba and the United States:

History and Culture of Cuba:

Economy of Cuba:

1948  In France, Robert Schuman becomes President of the Council while being Foreign minister, As such, he is the negotiator of the major treaties of the end of World War II.

194Iva Toguri D’Aquino, a Japanese American suspected of being wartime radio propagandist Tokyo Rose, is arrested in Yokohama.

Tokyo Rose (Iva Toguri D’Aquino):

1945  Cold War: Igor Gouzenko, a Soviet Union embassy clerk, defects to Canada, exposing Soviet espionage in North America, signaling the beginning of the Cold War.

1944  Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg constitute Benelux.

1943  World War II: The 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment lands and occupies Lae Nadzab Airport, near Lae in the Salamaua–Lae campaign.

1942  World War II: Japanese high command orders withdrawal at Milne Bay, the first major Japanese defeat in land warfare during the Pacific War.

1941  Whole territory of Estonia is occupied by Nazi Germany.

Estonia:

History of Estonia:

Foreign Relations of Estonia:

Estonia-Russia Relations:

Soviet Annexation of Estonia of 1940:

Estonia and Nazi Germany: Then and Now:

History and Social Issues of Estonia:

Independence of Estonia:

1938  Chile: A group of youths affiliated with the fascist National Socialist Movement of Chile are assassinated in the Seguro Obrero massacre.

193Spanish Civil War: Llanes falls to the Nationalists following a one-day siege.

Spanish Civil War:

Timelines of the Spanish Civil War:

1932  The French Upper Volta is broken apart between Ivory Coast, French Sudan, and Niger.

French Upper Volta

History of Burkina Faso:

Burkina Faso:

Foreign Relations of Burkina Faso:

Economy of Burkina Faso:

Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast):

History of Côte d’Ivoire:

Economy of Côte d’Ivoire:

French Sudan:

French Sudan, Independent as “Mali”:

History of Mali:

Mali:

Foreign Relations of Mali:

Mali and the United Nations:

US – Mali Military Relations/Cooperation:

Economy of Mali:

Niger:

Foreign Relations of Niger:

Niger and the United Nations:

History of Niger:

Economy of Niger:

1918  The original publication of the Cheka decree, “On Red Terror“.

1915  The pacifist Zimmerwald Conference begins.

1914  World War I: First Battle of the Marne begins. Northeast of Paris, the French attack and defeat German forces who are advancing on the capital.

190Russo-Japanese War: In New Hampshire, United States, the Treaty of Portsmouth, mediated by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, ends the war.

Russo-Japanese War:

Treaty of Portsmouth of 1905:

1882  The first United States Labor Day parade is held in New York City.

1877  American Indian Wars: Oglala Sioux chief Crazy Horse is bayoneted by a United States soldier after resisting confinement in a guardhouse at Fort Robinson in Nebraska.

Native People of America (a.k.a. American Indians):

History of Native People of America:

Wars of Native People of North America:

Genocides Committed against Native Americans:

Genocide Committed against Native Caucasians:

Indigenous Peoples and Their Rights:

1864  François Achille Bazaine becomes Marshal of France.

1862  James Glaisher, pioneering meteorologist and Henry Tracey Coxwell break world record for altitude whilst collecting data in their balloon.

1840  Premiere of Giuseppe Verdi‘s Un giorno di regno at La Scala of Milan.

1839  The United Kingdom declares war on the Qing dynasty of China.

1816  Louis XVIII has to dissolve the Chambre introuvable (“Unobtainable Chamber”).

1812  War of 1812: The Siege of Fort Wayne begins when Chief Winamac‘s forces attack two soldiers returning from the fort’s outhouses.

Siege of Fort Wayne:

War of 1812:

Timelines of the War of 1812:

1798  Conscription is made mandatory in France by the Jourdan law.

Conscription in France and/or Europe:

Conscription in General:

Conscientious Objection:

1793  French Revolution: The French National Convention initiates the Reign of Terror.

 

 

SETPEMBER 06

2013  Reports citing leaks of radioactive water from the Fukushima nuclear plant lead South Korea to ban all fishery imports from eight of Japan’s prefectures.

Radioactive Water from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant:

1997  The Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales takes place in London. Well over a million people lined the streets and 2.5 billion watched around the world on television.

Funeral of Princess Diana:

1992  Hunters discover the emaciated body of Christopher McCandless at his camp 20 miles (32 km) west of the town of Healy, Alaska.

1991  The name Saint Petersburg is restored to Russia’s second largest city, which had been known as Leningrad since 1924.

1991  The Soviet Union recognizes the independence of the Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

The Historical Background of the Baltic States and the Soviet Union:

Russia Reviews the 1991 Decision to Recognize the Independence of the Baltic States:

1986  In Istanbul, two terrorists from Abu Nidal‘s organization kill 22 and wound six inside the Neve Shalom Synagogue during Shabbat services.

1983  The Soviet Union admits to shooting down Korean Air Lines Flight 007, stating that the pilots did not know it was a civilian aircraft when it violated Soviet airspace.

1978  USSR performs underground nuclear test.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1978:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1976  Cold War: Soviet Air Force pilot Lieutenant Viktor Belenko lands a Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 jet fighter at Hakodate on the island of Hokkaidō in Japan and requests political asylum in the United States; his request is granted.

1975  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Tests:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1972  Munich massacre: Nine Israel athletes taken hostage at the Munich Olympic Games by the PalestinianBlack September” terrorist group die (as did a German policeman) at the hands of the kidnappers during a failed rescue attempt. Two other Israeli athletes were slain in the initial attack the previous day.

Munich Massacre of 1972:

1970  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1970:

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1970  Two passenger jets bound from Europe to New York are simultaneously hijacked by Palestinian terrorist members of the PFLP and taken to Dawson’s Field in Jordan.

1968  Swaziland becomes independent.

Swaziland:

History and Culture of Swaziland:

Economy of Swaziland:

1966  In Cape Town, South Africa, the architect of Apartheid, Prime Minister Dr. Hendrik Verwoerd, is stabbed to death during a parliamentary meeting.

South African History of Apartheid:

1965  India retaliates following Pakistan’s Operation Grand Slam which results in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 that ends in a stalemate and follows the signing of the Tashkent Declaration.

1963  The Centre for International Industrial Property Studies (CEIPI) is founded.

1962  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

Atmospheric Nuclear Testing at the Nevada Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1962  Archaeologist Peter Marsden discovers the first of the Blackfriars Ships dating back to the 2nd century AD in the Blackfriars area of the banks of the River Thames in London

196USSR performs atmospheric nuclear test at Kapustin Yar USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1961:

Nuclear Testing at Kapustin Yar:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

1958  US performs nuclear test at South Atlantic Ocean.

Operation Argus of 1958:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Nuclear Test Sites:

1955  Istanbul‘s Greek, Jewish and Armenian minority are the target of a government-sponsored pogrom; dozens die in the ensuing riots.

1954  US plane shot down above Siberia.

US Plane Shot Down in Siberia:

1952  A prototype aircraft crashes at the Farnborough Airshow in Hampshire, England, killing 29 spectators and the two on board.

1952  The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation makes its first televised broadcast on the second escape of the Boyd Gang.

1949  Allied military authorities relinquish control of former Nazi Germany assets back to German control.

1948  Juliana becomes Queen of the Netherlands.

1946  United States Secretary of State James F. Byrnes announces that the U.S. will follow a policy of economic reconstruction in postwar Germany.

Reconstruction of Germany and the United States:

1944  World War II: Soviet forces capture the city of Tartu, Estonia.

Estonia:

History of Estonia:

Holocaust and Jewish People in Estonia:

Estonia during World War II:

Estonia and Soviet/Russia:

1944  World War II: The city of Ypres, Belgium is liberated by Allied forces.

1943  The Monterrey Institute of Technology, one of the largest and most influential private universities in Latin America, is founded in Monterrey, Mexico.

1939  World War II: South Africa declares war on Nazi Germany.

1939  World War II: At the Battle of Barking Creek, Britain suffers its first fighter pilot casualty of the Second World War as a result of friendly fire.

1930  Democratically elected Argentine president Hipólito Yrigoyen is deposed in a military coup.

1885  Eastern Rumelia declares its union with Bulgaria. Bulgarian unification is henceforth accomplished.

1870  Louisa Ann Swain of Laramie, Wyoming becomes the first woman in the United States to cast a vote legally after 1807.

Women’s Suffrage in the United States:

Women’s Suffrage and Its History:

Women’s Rights in General:

International Instruments on Women’s Rights:

1847  Henry David Thoreau leaves Walden Pond and moves in with Ralph Waldo Emerson and his family in Concord, Massachusetts.

Henry David Thoreau and Walden:

Thoreau and Civil Disobedience:

Ralph Waldo Emerson:

1803  British scientist John Dalton begins using symbols to represent the atoms of different elements.

1781  The Battle of Groton Heights takes place, resulting in a British victory.

1634  Thirty Years’ War: In the Battle of Nördlingen the Catholic Imperial army defeats Protestant armies of Sweden and Germany.

1628  Puritans settle Salem, which will later become part of Massachusetts Bay Colony.

1620  The Pilgrims sail from Plymouth, England, on the Mayflower to settle in North America. (Old Style date; September 16 per New Style date.)

 

 

SEPTEMBER 07

2012  Canada officially cuts diplomatic ties with Iran by closing its embassy in Tehran and ordered the expulsion of Iranian diplomats from Ottawa, over support for Syria, nuclear plans and alleged rights abuses.

Canada’s Relations with Iran:

Foreign Relations of Iran:

2012  A series of earthquakes in Yunnan, China, kills 89 people and injures 800 others.

2011  A plane crash in Russia kills 43 people, including nearly the entire roster of the Lokomotiv Yaroslavl Kontinental Hockey League team.

2010  A Chinese fishing trawler collided with two Japanese Coast Guard patrol boats in disputed waters near the Senkaku Islands. The collisions occurred around 10am, after the Japanese Coast Guard ordered the trawler to leave the area. After the collisions, Japanese sailors boarded the Chinese vessel and arrested the captain, Zhan Qixiong.

2008  The US Government takes control of the two largest mortgage financing companies in the US, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.

2005  Egypt holds its first-ever multi-party presidential election.

Egypt Multi-Party Presidential Election:

2004  Hurricane Ivan, a Category 5 hurricane hits Grenada, killing 39 and damaging 90% of its buildings.

1999  A 5.9 magnitude earthquake rocks Athens, rupturing a previously unknown fault, killing 143, injuring more than 500, and leaving 50,000 people homeless.

1988  Abdul Ahad Mohmand, the first Afghan in space, returns aboard the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz TM-5 after 9 days on the Mir space station.

1986  General Augusto Pinochet, president of Chile, escapes attempted assassination.

1986  Desmond Tutu becomes the first black man to lead the Anglican Church in South Africa.

Desmond Tutu:

Anti-Apartheid Movement:

History of Apartheid:

1979  The Chrysler Corporation asks the United States government for US$1.5 billion to avoid bankruptcy.

1978  While walking across Waterloo Bridge in London, Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov is assassinated by Bulgarian secret police agent Francesco Giullino by means of a ricin pellet fired from a specially-designed umbrella.

1977  The Torrijos–Carter Treaties between Panama and the United States on the status of the Panama Canal are signed. The United States agrees to transfer control of the canal to Panama at the end of the 20th century.

1970  Fighting between Arab guerrillas and government forces in Amman, Jordan.

Black September, 1970:

1966  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1966:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

USSR’s Nuclear Tests at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1965  Vietnam War: In a follow-up to August‘s Operation Starlight, United States Marines and South Vietnamese forces initiate Operation Piranha on the Batangan Peninsula.

1965 in the Vietnam War:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1965  China announces that it will reinforce its troops on the Indian border.

Sino-India Relations:

1961  João Goulart becomes President of Brazil.

1953  Garfield Todd becomes Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia.

195Mohammad Daoud Khan becomes Premier of Afghanistan.

195Nikita Khrushchev is elected first secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Nikita Khrushchev:

1945  Japanese forces on Wake Island, which they had held since December of 1941, surrender to U.S. Marines.

1943  987 Dutch Jewish transported to Auschwitz Concentration Camp.

1943  World War II: The German 17th Army begins its evacuation of the Kuban bridgehead (Taman Peninsula) in southern Russia and moves across the Strait of Kerch to the Crimea.

1942  World War II: Australian and US forces inflict a significant defeat upon the Japanese at the Battle of Milne Bay.

1942  First flight of the Consolidated B-32 Dominator.

1940  Treaty of Craiova: Romania loses Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria.

1936  The last thylacine, a carnivorous marsupial named Benjamin, dies alone in its cage at the Hobart Zoo in Tasmania.

1932  The Battle of Boquerón, the first major battle of the Chaco War, commences.

Battle of Boquerón:

Chaco War (1932-1935):

1927  The first fully electronic television system is achieved by Philo Farnsworth.

1922  The Bank of Latvia established.

1922  In Aydın, Turkey, independence of Aydın, from Greek occupation.

Also see the date ofSEPTEMBER 13, 1922      The final act of the Greco-Turkish War, the Great Fire of Smyrna, commences.”

Aydin:

History of Aydin, and Greco-Turkish War:

1921  The Legion of Mary, the largest apostolic organization of lay people in the Catholic Church, is founded in Dublin, Ireland.

Legion of Mary:

1916  US federal employees win the right to Workers’ compensation by Federal Employers Liability Act (39 Stat. 742; 5 U.S.C. 751)

1911  French poet Guillaume Apollinaire is arrested and put in jail on suspicion of stealing the Mona Lisa from the Louvre museum.

1906 Alberto Santos-Dumont flies his 14-bis aircraft at Bagatelle, France for the first time successfully.

1901  The Boxer Rebellion in Qing dynasty China officially ends with the signing of the Boxer Protocol.

1873  Emilio Castelar y Ripoll becomes President of the First Spanish Republic.

1860  Italian re-unification: Garibaldi enters Naples.

1857  Mountain Meadows massacre: Mormon settlers slaughter most members of peaceful, emigrant wagon train.

1822  Dom Pedro I declares Brazil independent from Portugal on the shores of the Ipiranga Brook in São Paulo.

1812  French invasion of Russia: The Battle of Borodino, the bloodiest battle of the Napoleonic Wars, was fought near Moscow and resulted in a French victory.

1776  According to American colonial reports, Ezra Lee makes the world’s first submarine attack in the Turtle, attempting to attach a time bomb to the hull of HMS Eagle in New York Harbor (no British records of this attack exist).

1764  Election of Stanisław August Poniatowski as the last ruler of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

1706  War of the Spanish Succession: Siege of Turin ends, leading to the withdrawal of French forces from North Italy.

 

 

SEPTEMBER 08

INTERNATIONAL LITERACY DAY

2004  NASA‘s unmanned spacecraft Genesis crash-lands when its parachute fails to open.

1991  The Republic of Macedonia becomes independent.

Macedonia and Its History:

Independence of Macedonia:

1979  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1978  Black Friday, a massacre by soldiers against protesters in Tehran, provoked 88 deaths, it marks the beginning of the end of the monarchy in Iran

1975  Gays in the military: US Air Force Tech Sergeant Leonard Matlovich, a decorated veteran of the Vietnam War, appears in his Air Force uniform on the cover of Time magazine with the headline “I Am A Homosexual”. He is given a general discharge, which was later upgraded to honorable.

1974  Watergate Scandal: US President Gerald Ford pardons former President Richard Nixon for any crimes Nixon may have committed while in office.

1967  The formal end of steam traction in the North East of England by British Railways.

1965  Pakistan Navy raids Indian coasts without any resistance in Operation Dwarka, Pakistan celebrates Victory Day annually.

1962  Last run of the famous Pines Express over the Somerset and Dorset Railway line (UK) fittingly using the last steam locomotive built by British Railways, 9F locomotive 92220 Evening Star.

1962  Newly independent Algeria, by referendum, adopts a constitution.

Independence of Algeria:

Algeria:

History of Algeria:

Economy of Algeria:

Foreign Relations of Algeria:

Algeria and the United Nations:

1962  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1962:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

1960  In Huntsville, Alabama, US President Dwight D. Eisenhower formally dedicates the Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA had already activated the facility on July 1).

1959  The Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) is established.

1954  The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) is established.

1951 Treaty of San Francisco, or commonly known as the Treaty of Peace with Japan, Peace Treaty of San Francisco, or San Francisco Peace Treaty, between Japan and the Allied Powers, is officially signed by 48 nations

1951  The Security Treaty between the United States and Japan of 1951 is signed.

1946  95.6% vote in favor of abolishing the monarchy in Bulgaria.

Kingdom of Bulgaria:

History of Bulgaria:

1945  Cold War: United States troops arrive to partition the southern part of Korea in response to Soviet troops occupying the northern part of the peninsula a month earlier.

1944  World War II: Menton is liberated from Germany.

1944  World War II: London is hit by a V-2 rocket for the first time.

1943  World War II: United States General Dwight D. Eisenhower publicly announces the Allied armistice with Italy.

1943  World War II: The O.B.S. (German General Headquarters for the Mediterranean zone) in Frascati is bombed by USAAF.

1941  World War II: Siege of Leningrad begins. German forces begin a siege against the Soviet Union‘s second-largest city, Leningrad.

Siege of Leningrad:

1933  Ghazi bin Faisal became King of Iraq.

Iraq and Its History:

Ghazi, Kings, and Kingdom of Iraq:

1930  3M begins marketing Scotch transparent tape.

1926  Germany is admitted to the League of Nations.

League of Nations:

1925  Rif War: Spanish forces including troops from the Foreign Legion under Colonel Francisco Franco landing at Al Hoceima (Northern Morocco).

1914  World War I: Private Thomas Highgate becomes the first British soldier to be executed for desertion during the war.

1888 In Spain, the first travel of Isaac Peral’s submarine, was the first practical submarine ever made.

1831  November Uprising: Battle of Warsaw ends, effectively ending the Insurrection.

Battle of Warsaw:

November Uprising:

Poland and Russia:

History of Poland:

Poland:

Foreign Relations of Poland:

Economy of Poland:

1796  French Revolutionary Wars: Battle of Bassano: French forces defeat Austrian troops at Bassano del Grappa.

1793  French Revolutionary Wars: Battle of Hondschoote.

1756  French and Indian War: Kittanning Expedition.

1755  French and Indian War: Battle of Lake George.

1655  Warsaw falls without resistance to a small force under the command of Charles X Gustav of Sweden during The Deluge, making it the first time the city is captured by a foreign army.

 

 

SEPTEMBER 09

2012  A wave of attacks kill more than 100 people and injure 350 others across Iraq.

2012  The Indian space agency puts into orbit its heaviest foreign satellite yet, in a streak of 21 consecutive successful PLSV launches.

Indian Space Program:

2001  The Unix billenium is reached, marking the beginning of the use of 10-digit decimal Unix time stamps.

2001  Pärnu methanol tragedy occurs in Pärnu County, Estonia.

2001  Ahmad Shah Massoud, leader of the Northern Alliance, is assassinated in Afghanistan by two al-Qaeda assassins who claimed to be Arab journalists wanting an interview.

1993  The Palestine Liberation Organization officially recognizes Israel as a legitimate state.

1991  Tajikistan declares independence from the Soviet Union.

Independence of Tajikistan:

Tajikistan:

History of Tajikistan:

Tajikistan and Its Foreign Relations:

1990  1990 Batticaloa massacre, massacre of 184 minority Tamil civilians by Sri Lankan Army in the eastern Batticaloa District of Sri Lanka.

1990 Batticaloa Massacre:

1972  In Kentucky‘s Mammoth Cave National Park, a Cave Research Foundation exploration and mapping team discovers a link between the Mammoth and Flint Ridge cave systems, making it the longest known cave passageway in the world.

1971  The four-day Attica Prison riot begins, eventually resulting in 39 dead, most killed by state troopers retaking the prison.

1970  A British airliner is hijacked by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and flown to Dawson’s Field in Jordan.

1969  In Canada, the Official Languages Act comes into force, making French equal to English throughout the Federal government.

Official Language Act of Canada:

1966  The National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act is signed into law by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson.

1965  Tibet is made an autonomous region of China.

Tibet as an Autonomous Region of China:

History of Tibet:

Tibet and China:

1956  Elvis Presley appears on The Ed Sullivan Show for the first time.

1948  Kim Il-sung declares the establishment of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.

Kim Il-sung:

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea):

News and News Archives of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea):

1947  First case of a computer bug being found: a moth lodges in a relay of a Harvard Mark II computer at Harvard University.

1945  Second Sino-Japanese War: The Empire of Japan formally surrenders to China.

Second Sino-Japanese War:

Japan’s Surrender to China:

1944  World War II: The Fatherland Front takes power in Bulgaria through a military coup in the capital and armed rebellion in the country. A new pro-Soviet government is established.

Bulgaria and WWII in History:

1942  World War II: A Japanese floatplane drops incendiary bombs on Oregon.

1940  Treznea massacre: The Hungarian Army, supported by local Hungarians kill 93 Romanian civilians in Treznea, a village in Northern Transylvania, as part of attempts to ethnic cleansing.

1940  George Stibitz pioneers the first remote operation of a computer.

1939  Burmese national hero U Ottama dies in prison after a hunger strike to protest Britain’s colonial government.

1939  World War II: The Battle of Hel begins, the longest-defended pocket of Polish Army resistance during the German invasion of Poland.

1936  The crews of Portuguese Navy frigate NRP Afonso de Albuquerque and destroyer Dão mutinied against Salazar dictatorship‘s support of General Franco‘s coup and declared their solidarity with the Spanish Republic.

1926  In the United States the National Broadcasting Company is formed.

1924  Hanapepe massacre occurs on Kauai, Hawaii.

Hanapepe Massacre:

1923  Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey, founds the Republican People’s Party.

1922  The Greco-Turkish War effectively ends with Turkish victory over the Greeks in Smyrna.

Greco-Turkish War:

1914  World War I: The creation of the Canadian Automobile Machine Gun Brigade, the first fully mechanized unit in the British Army.

1886  The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works is finalized.

Berne Convention:

1855  Crimean War: The Siege of Sevastopol comes to an end when Russian forces abandon the city.

Crimean War:

Siege of Sevastopol:

1839  John Herschel takes the first glass plate photograph.

1801  Alexander I of Russia confirms the privileges of Baltic provinces.

1791  Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, is named after President George Washington.

1776  The Continental Congress officially names its new union of sovereign states the United States.

1739  Stono Rebellion, the largest slave uprising in Britain’s mainland North American colonies prior to the American Revolution, erupts near Charleston, South Carolina.

 

 

SEPTEMBER 10

WORLD SUICIDE PREVENTION DAY

2008  The Large Hadron Collider at CERN, described as the biggest scientific experiment in history, is powered up in Geneva, Switzerland.

2007  Former Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif returns to Pakistan after seven years in exile, following a military coup in October 1999.

2002  Switzerland, traditionally a neutral country, joins the United Nations.

Switzerland:

History of Switzerland:

Foreign Relations and Neutrality of Switzerland, and the United Nations:

2001  Antônio da Costa Santos, mayor of Campinas, Brazil is assassinated.

2000  Operation Barras successfully frees six British soldiers held captive for over two weeks and contributes to the end of the Sierra Leone Civil War.

Sierra Leone:

History of Sierra Leone:

Sierra Leone Civil War:

UN and Sierra Leone:

1990  The Basilica of Our Lady of Peace in Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire, the largest church in Africa, is consecrated by Pope John Paul II.

1977  Hamida Djandoubi, convicted of torture and murder, is the last person to be executed by guillotine in France.

1976  Five Croatian terrorists capture TWA-plane at La Guardia Airport, NY.

1974  Guinea-Bissau gains independence from Portugal.

Guinea-Bissau:

History of Guinea-Bissau:

Independence of Guinea-Bissau:

Economy of Guinea-Bissau:

1969  US performs nuclear test at Grand Valley, Colorado.

Project Rulison:

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1967  The people of Gibraltar vote to remain a British dependency rather than becoming part of Spain.

1961  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

1960  At the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, Abebe Bikila becomes the first sub-Saharan African to win a gold medal, winning the marathon in bare feet.

1946  While riding a train to Darjeeling, Sister Teresa Bojaxhiu of the Loreto Sisters’ Convent claimed to have heard the call of God, directing her “to leave the convent and help the poor while living among them”. She would become known as Mother Teresa.

1943  World War II: German forces begin their occupation of Rome.

1942  World War II: The British Army carries out an amphibious landing on Madagascar to re-launch Allied offensive operations in the Madagascar Campaign.

1939  World War II: Canada declares war on Nazi Germany, joining the Allies – Poland, France, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia.

1939  World War II: The submarine HMS Oxley is mistakenly sunk by the submarine HMS Triton near Norway and becomes the Royal Navy‘s first loss.

1937  Nine nations attend the Nyon Conference to address international piracy in the Mediterranean Sea.

The Concept of Piracy and the Nyon Agreement of 1937:

Piracy and Legal Issues:

1935  India’s first all-boys public school, The Doon School, is founded.

1919  Austria and the Allies sign the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye recognizing the independence of Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

1918  Russian Civil War: The Red Army captures Kazan.

Russian Civil War:

Timelines of the Russian Civil War:

1898  Empress Elisabeth of Austria is assassinated by Luigi Lucheni.

Assassination of Elisabeth of Austria:

1897  Lattimer massacre: A sheriff’s posse kills 20 unarmed immigrant miners in Pennsylvania, United States.

1858  George Mary Searle discovers the asteroid 55 Pandora.

1846  Elias Howe is granted a patent for the sewing machine.

1823  Simón Bolívar is named President of Peru.

 

 

SEPTEMBER 11

2013  A 400 km long human chain called Catalan Way is organized by the Assemblea Nacional Catalana for the independence of Catalonia

2012  The U.S. embassy in Benghazi, Libya is attacked, resulting in four deaths.

2007  Russia tests the largest conventional weapon ever, the Father of All Bombs.

2001  September 11, attacks: Two allegedly hijacked aircraft crash into the World Trade Center in New York City, while a third smashes into The Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, and a fourth into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, in a series of coordinated suicide attacks by reportedly 19 members of al-Qaeda. In total 2,996 people are killed.

9/11 Official Story:

“9/11 Truth Movement”:

Counter-“9/11 Truth Movement”:

9/11 Various Aspects:

Bush Family, CIA, and Osama bin Laden:

Osama bin Laden, 9/11, and Iraq:

Al-Qaeda:

YouTube Videos on 9/11:

“Illuminati and 9/11” or Only Some Variations of the Conspiracy Theory? :

A Few Books, Among Many Others, relating to 9/11:

1997  Fourteen Estonian soldiers die in the Kurkse tragedy, drowning in the Baltic Sea.

1997  After a nationwide referendum, Scotland votes to establish a devolved parliament within the United Kingdom.

1997  NASA‘s Mars Global Surveyor reaches Mars.

1989  Hungary announces that the East German refugees who had been housed in temporary camps were free to leave for West Germany.

1988  The St. Jean Bosco massacre takes place in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

1986  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1985  Pete Rose breaks Ty Cobb‘s baseball record for most career hits with his 4,192nd hit.

1983  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

198The international forces that were guaranteeing the safety of Palestinian refugees following Israel‘s 1982 Invasion of Lebanon leave Beirut. Five days later [i.e. five days later = the massacre was carried out between September 16 and 18, 1982], several thousand refugees are massacred in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps.

Massacre at the Sabra and Shatila Refugee Camps, September 1982:

1980  Voters approve a new Constitution of Chile, later amended after the departure of president Pinochet.

1978  Janet Parker is the last person to die of smallpox, in a laboratory-associated outbreak.

197A group of Croatian nationalists plant a bomb in a coin locker at Grand Central Terminal. After stating political demands, they reveal the location and provided instructions for disarming the bomb. The disarming operation are not executed properly and the bomb explodes, killing one NYPD bomb squad specialist.

Croatian Nationalists and the Croatian Independence Movement:

Background: Croatia, Nationalism, and the Independence Movement:

Background Direct or Indirect: Independent State of Croatia (NDH) in World War II:

Background Direct or Indirect: Jasenovac Concentration Camp:

Background Direct or Indirect: Bleiburg Massacre:

1973  A coup in Chile headed by General Augusto Pinochet topples the democratically elected president Salvador Allende. Pinochet exercises dictatorial power until ousted in a referendum in 1988, staying in power until 1990.

1971  The Egyptian Constitution becomes official.

1970  The Dawson’s Field hijackers release 88 of their hostages. The remaining hostages, mostly Jews and Israeli citizens, are held until September 25.

1969  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1969:

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1968  The International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) was found.

1965  Indo-Pakistani War: The Indian Army captures the town of Burki, just southeast of Lahore.

1945  World War II: Australian 9th Division forces liberate the Japanese-run Batu Lintang camp, a POW and civilian internment camp on the island of Borneo.

1944  World War II: RAF bombing raid on Darmstadt and the following firestorm kill 11,500.

1944  World War II: The first Allied troops of the U.S. Army cross the western border of Germany.

1943  World War II: Start of the liquidation of the Ghettos in Minsk and Lida by the Nazis.

1943  World War II: German troops occupy Corsica and KosovoMetohija.

1941  Charles Lindbergh’s Des Moines Speech accusing the British, Jews and the Roosevelt administration of pressing for war with Germany.

1941  Ground is broken for the construction of The Pentagon.

1940  George Stibitz performs the first remote operation of a computer.

1936  World War II: Canada declares war on Germany, the country’s first independent declaration of war

1922  The Treaty of Kars is ratified in Yerevan, Armenia.

1921  Nahalal, the first moshav in Palestine, is settled as part of a Zionist plan to colonize Palestine and creating a Jewish state, later to be Israel.

Nahalal, and Jewish Settlement:

Zionism Movement:

History of Zionism:

1919  US Marines invade Honduras.

Honduras:

History of Honduras:

US Invasion of Honduras and of Other Countries:

Honduras – United States Relations:

1914  Australia invades New Britain, defeating a German contingent at the Battle of Bita Paka.

1897  After months of pursuit, generals of Menelik II of Ethiopia capture Gaki Sherocho, the last king of Kaffa, bringing an end to that ancient kingdom.

Kingdom of Kaffa:

History of the Kingdom of Kaffa:

1893  Parliament of the World’s Religions opens in Chicago, where Swami Vivekananda delivers his speech on fanaticism, tolerance and the truth inherent in all religions.

Swami Vivekananda:

Swami Vivekananda’s Speech at Chicago, September 11, 1893:

1857  The Mountain Meadows massacre: Mormon settlers and Paiutes massacre 120 pioneers at Mountain Meadows, Utah.

1852  The State of Buenos Aires secedes from the Argentine Federal government, rejoining on September 17, 1861. Several places are named Once de Septiembre after this event.

1851  Christiana Resistance: Escaped slaves stand against their former owner in armed resistance in Christiana, Pennsylvania, creating a rallying cry for the abolitionist movement.

1830  Anti-Masonic Party convention; one of the first American political party conventions.

1829  Surrender of the expedition led by Isidro Barradas at Tampico, sent by the Spanish crown in order to retake Mexico. This was the consummation of Mexico’s campaign for independence.

1803  Battle of Delhi, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, between British troops under General Lake, and Marathas of Scindia‘s army under General Louis Bourquin.

1802  France annexes the Kingdom of Piedmont.

1786  The beginning of the Annapolis Convention.

1776  British–American peace conference on Staten Island fails to stop nascent American Revolutionary War.

1758  Battle of Saint Cast: France repels British invasion during the Seven Years’ War.

1714  Siege of Barcelona: Barcelona, capital city of Catalonia, surrenders to Spanish and French Bourbon armies in the War of the Spanish Succession.

1709  Battle of Malplaquet: Great Britain, Netherlands and Austria fight against France.

1708  Charles XII of Sweden stops his march to conquer Moscow outside Smolensk, marking the turning point in the Great Northern War. The army is defeated nine months later in the Battle of Poltava, and the Swedish Empire ceases to be a major power.

1697  Battle of Zenta.

__________________________________

(Sources and references: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/september5   to_september_11; http://www.onthisday.com/events/september/5   to september/11;   http://www.brainyhistory.com/days/september_5.html.   to september_11.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

 

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 5 Sep 2016.

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