This Week in History

HISTORY, 29 May 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

May 29-Jun 4


“I am not afraid… I was born to do this.”  (“Je n’ai pas peur… Je suis né pour cela.”) – Joan of Arc (Jeanne d’Arc)

 MAY 29

2014  Ignatius Aphrem II is enthroned as the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch.

1999  Olusegun Obasanjo takes office as President of Nigeria, the first elected and civilian head of state in Nigeria after 16 years of military rule.

Olusegun Obasanjo:


History of Nigeria:

Foreign Relations of Nigeria:

Nigeria and the United Nations:

Economy of Nigeria:

1993  The Miss Sarajevo beauty pageant is held in war torn Sarajevo drawing global attention to the plight of its citizens.

Miss Sarajevo Beauty Pageant during the Bosnian War:

Miss Sarajevo in Music:

Siege of Sarajevo:


History of Bosnia-Herzegovina:

Independence of Bosnia-Herzegovina:

War in Bosnia-Herzegovina:

Bosnian War on the Ground:

Timeline of the War in Bosnia-Herzegovina:

Foreign Relations of Bosnia-Herzegovina:

Economy of Bosnia-Herzegovina:

1990  The Russian parliament elects Boris Yeltsin as president of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.

Boris Yeltsin:

1989  Signing of an agreement between Egypt and the United States, allowing the manufacture of parts of the F-16 jet fighter plane in Egypt.

1988  The US President Ronald Reagan begins his first visit to the Soviet Union when he arrives in Moscow for a superpower summit with the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.

1982  Falklands/Malvinas War: British forces defeat the Argentines at the Battle of Goose Green.

Battle of Goose Green:

Falklands/Malvinas War:

Timelines of Falklands/Malvinas War:

Falklands/Malvinas War in the UN Documents:

198US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

197USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1978:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1977  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1977:

1973  Tom Bradley is elected the first black mayor of Los Angeles, California.

Tom Bradley:

197USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1970:

1964  The Arab League meets in East Jerusalem to discuss the Palestinian question, leading to the formation of the Palestine Liberation Organization.

Arab League:

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO):

History of the PLO:

1954  First of the annual Bilderberg conferences.

Bilderberg Group:

History of Bilderberg Group:

1953  Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay become the first people to reach the summit of Mount Everest, on Tenzing Norgay’s (adopted) 39th birthday.

Edmund Hillary’s Everest Expedition:

1948  Creation of the United Nations peacekeeping force the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization.

United Nations Truce Supervision Organization:

Peacekeeping, and the UN Peacekeeping:

History of the UN Peacekeeping:

Various Problems, the Past and Present, relating to the UN Peacekeeping Operations:

Relevant Reports on the UN Peacekeeping Operations:

UN Peacekeeping Trainings, and Other Peace-related Learning Programs:

1939  The Albanian fascist leader Tefik Mborja is appointed as member of the Italian Chamber of Fasces and Corporations.

Albania and Fascism during World War II:

History of Albania:

1932  World War I veterans begin to assemble in Washington, D.C., in the Bonus Army to request cash bonuses promised to them to be paid in 1945.

1919  The Republic of Prekmurje is founded.

Republic of Prekmurje:

1919  Albert Einstein‘s theory of general relativity is tested (later confirmed) by Arthur Eddington and Andrew Claude de la Cherois Crommelin.

Albert Einstein:

Einstein’s Papers:

On Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity:

1918  Armenia defeats the Ottoman Army in the Battle of Sardarabad.

Battle of Sardarabad:

Ottoman Empire and World War I:

Ottoman Empire:

History of Armenia:


Foreign Relations of Armenia:

Economy of Armenia:

1916  US forces invade Dominican Republic, stay until 1924.

US Invasion and Occupation the Dominican Republic of 1916:

US Invasion and Occupation of the Dominican Republic of 1965:

Dominican Republic:

History of Dominican Republic:

Economy of the Dominican Republic:

1903  In the May coup d’état, Alexander I, King of Serbia, and Queen Draga, are assassinated in Belgrade by the Black Hand (Crna Ruka) organization.

May coup d’état (May Coup in Serbia) of 1903:

Alexander I and Queen Draga of Serbia:

Black Hand (Crna Ruka):

Kingdom of Serbia:

1900  N’Djamena is founded as Fort-Lamy by the French commander Émile Gentil.

1868  The assassination of Michael Obrenovich III, Prince of Serbia, in Belgrade.

1867  The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (“the Compromise”) is born through Act 12, which establishes the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

1864  Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico arrives in Mexico for the first time.

History of Mexico:

1861  The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce is founded, in Hong Kong.

1807  Mustafa IV became Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam.

Mustafa IV:

Ottoman Empire:

1798  United Irishmen Rebellion: Between 300 and 500 United Irishmen are massacred by the British Army in County Kildare, Ireland.



MAY 30

2013  Nigeria passes a law banning same-sex marriage.

Nigeria Prohibits the Same Sex Marriage in May 2013:

Case Study (1) Netherlands Legalizes the Same-Sex Marriage in April 2001:

Case Study (2): Sweden and the Same-Sex Marriage in April 2009:

Case Study (3): Slovenia Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage in March 2015:

LGBT Rights in General:


History of Nigeria:

Foreign Relations of Nigeria:

Nigeria and the United Nations:

Economy of Nigeria:

2012  Former Liberian president, Charles Taylor, is sentenced to 50 years in prison for his role in atrocities committed during the Sierra Leone Civil War.

Charles Taylor:


Sierra Leone Civil War:

Sierra Leone:

History of Sierra Leone:

Economy of Sierra Leone:

2003  Depayin massacre: at least 70 people associated with the National League for Democracy are killed by government-sponsored mob in Burma. Aung San Suu Kyi fled the scene, but is arrested soon afterwards.

Depayin Massacre:

1998  Nuclear Testing: Pakistan conducts an underground test in the Kharan Desert. It is reported to be a plutonium device with yield of 20kt.

Nuclear Weapons Testing of Pakistan:

1989  Tiananmen Square protests of 1989: the 33-foot high “Goddess of Democracystatue is unveiled in Tiananmen Square by student demonstrators.

  • For some more information on the Tiananmen Square Massacre, see JUNE 4, 1989.

Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989:

1972  In Tel Aviv, Israel, members of the Japanese Red Army carry out the Lod Airport massacre, killing 24 people and injuring 78 others.

Lod Airport Massacre of 1972:

1972  The Angry Brigade goes on trial over a series of 25 bombings throughout the United Kingdom.

1968  Charles de Gaulle reappears publicly after his flight to Baden-Baden, Germany, and dissolves the French National Assembly by a radio appeal. Immediately after, less than one million of his supporters march on the Champs-Élysées in Paris. This is the turning point of May 1968 events in France.

May 1968 Events in France:

Charles de Gaulle:

1967  The Nigerian Eastern Region declares independence as the Republic of Biafra, sparking a civil war.


Nigerian Civil War:

History of Nigeria:


Foreign Relations of Nigeria:

Nigeria and the United Nations:

Economy of Nigeria:

1966  The former Congolese Prime Minister, Évariste Kimba, and several other politicians are publicly executed in Kinshasa on the orders of President Joseph Mobutu.

1963  A protest against pro-Catholic discrimination during the Buddhist crisis is held outside South Vietnam‘s National Assembly, the first open demonstration during the eight-year rule of Ngo Dinh Diem.

1958  Memorial Day: the remains of two unidentified American servicemen, killed in action during World War II and the Korean War respectively, are buried at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington National Cemetery.

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1958  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Enewetak.

Enewetak Nuclear Test Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1956  US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Enewetak.

1942  World War II: 1000 British bombers launch a 90-minute attack on Cologne, Germany.

1941  World War II: Manolis Glezos and Apostolos Santas climb the Athenian Acropolis and tear down the Nazi swastika.

1917  Alexander I becomes king of Greece.

Alexander I:

Modern History of Greece:

1913  First Balkan War: the Treaty of London (1913), is signed ending the war. Albania becomes an independent nation.

Treaty of London (1913):

First Balkan War:

Balkan Wars:

1876  Ottoman sultan Abdülaziz is deposed and succeeded by his nephew Murad V.

1431 Joan of Arc (1412-1431) is martyred.

Joan of Arc (Jeanne d’Arc):



MAY 31

2011  After scientists reviewed studies on cell phone safety, the World Health Organization classifies cell phone radiation as a carcinogenic hazard, possibly carcinogenic to humans.

Issues on Cell Phone Radiation:

2010  In international waters, armed Shayetet 13 commandos, intending to force the flotilla to anchor at the Ashdod port, boarded ships trying to break the ongoing blockade of the Gaza Strip, resulting in nine civilian deaths.

2005  Vanity Fair reveals that Mark Felt was Deep Throat.

Deep Throat (Watergate):

Watergate Scandal:

Watergate Tapes:

1991  Bicesse Accords in Angola lay out a transition to multi-party democracy under the supervision of the United NationsUNAVEM II mission.

Bicesse Accords:

Angola and the United Nations:


Foreign Relations of Angola:

History of Angola:

1989  A group of six members of the guerrilla group Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) of Peru, shoot dead eight transsexuals, in the city of Tarapoto.

1984  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1981  The burning of Jaffna library in Sri Lanka. It is one of the violent examples of ethnic biblioclasm of the twentieth century.4

Burning of the Jaffna Library:

1977  The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System completed.

Trans-Atlantic Pipeline System:

197USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1974:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1973  The United States Senate votes to cut off funding for the bombing of Khmer Rouge targets within Cambodia, hastening the end of the Cambodian Civil War.

Cambodian Civil War:

Khmer Rouge:


History of Cambodia:

Foreign Relations of Cambodia:

Economy of Cambodia:

1970  The Ancash earthquake causes a landslide that buries the town of Yungay, Peru; more than 47,000 people are killed.

Ancash Earthquake of 1970:

1962  Adolf Eichmann is hanged in Israel.

Adolf Eichmann:

Trial of Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem:

1962  The West Indies Federation dissolves.

1961  In Moscow City Court, the Rokotov–Faibishenko show trial begins, despite the Khrushchev Thaw to reverse Stalinist elements in Soviet society.

1961  The Union of South Africa becomes the Republic of South Africa.

Republic of South Africa:

1958  US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Bikini Island (atmospheric tests).

Operation Hardtack I:

Nuclear Tests at Bikini Atoll:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Tests by the United States:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1942  World War II: Imperial Japanese Navy midget submarines begin a series of attacks on Sydney, Australia.

1941  Anglo-Iraqi War: The United Kingdom completes the re-occupation of Iraq and returns ‘Abd al-Ilah to power as regent for Faisal II.

Anglo-Iraq War of 1941:

1941  A Luftwaffe air raid on Dublin, Ireland, claims 38 lives.

1935  An earthquake of 7.7 Mw destroys Quetta in modern-day Pakistan killing 40,000.

1935 Quetta Earthquake:

1924  The Soviet Union signs an agreement with the Beijing government, referring to Outer Mongolia as an “integral part of the Republic of China“, whose “sovereignty” therein the Soviet Union promises to respect.

1921  Tulsa race riot: civil unrest in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The official death toll is 39, but recent investigations suggest the actual toll may be much higher.

1916  World War I: Battle of Jutland – The British Grand Fleet under the command of John Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe and David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty engage the Imperial German Navy under the command of Reinhard Scheer and Franz von Hipper in the largest naval battle of the war, which proves indecisive.

Battle of Jutland:

1911  The President of Mexico Porfirio Díaz flees the country during the Mexican Revolution.

History of Mexico:

1910  The creation of the Union of South Africa.

Union of South Africa:

History of South Africa:

1909  The National Negro Committee, forerunner to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, convenes for the first time.

1902  Second Boer War: The Treaty of Vereeniging ends the war and ensures British control of South Africa.

Treaty of Vereeniging:

Second Boer War:

1884  The arrival at Plymouth of Tāwhiao, King of Maoris, to claim the protection of Queen Victoria

1866  In the Fenian Invasion of Canada, John O’Neill leads 850 Fenian raiders across the Niagara River at Buffalo, New York/Fort Erie, Ontario, as part of an effort to free Ireland from the United Kingdom. Canadian militia and British regulars repulse the invaders in over the next three days, at a cost of 9 dead and 38 wounded to the Fenian‘s 19 dead and about 17 wounded.




2014  Benjamin Netanyahu, Israel’s Prime Minister, advises other nations to be cautious in recognizing the new Palestinian government, formed by agreement between Islamist rival groups Fatah and Hamas; Hamas plans to maintain its anti-Zionist stance.

Fatah and Hamas Relations:




Hamas and Israel:

State of Palestine and its International Recognition:

2011  The US announces it will boycott an anti-racism conference at the United Nations due to concerns over anti-Semetism.

US Boycott of the UN Anti-Racism Conference of 2011:

2001  Dolphinarium massacre: A Hamas suicide bomber kills 21 at a disco in Tel Aviv.

2001  Nepalese royal massacre: Crown Prince Dipendra of Nepal shoots and kills several members of his family including his father and mother, King Birendra of Nepal and Queen Aiswarya.

Nepalese Royal Massacre:

1990  George H W Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev sign a treaty to end chemical weapon production.

International Ban of Chemical Weapons and the Chemical Weapons Convention:

1980  Cable News Network (CNN) begins broadcasting.


1979  The first black-led government of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) in 90 years takes power.

1978  The first international applications under the Patent Cooperation Treaty are filed.

1963  Kenya gains internal self-rule (Madaraka Day).

History of Kenya:


Foreign Relations of Kenya:

Economy of Kenya:

1958  Charles de Gaulle comes out of retirement to lead France by decree for six months.

Charles de Gaulle:

Charles de Gaulle’s Policies on Algeria:

1946  Ion Antonescu, “Conducator” (leader) of Romania during World War II, is executed.

1941  The Farhud, a pogrom of Iraqi Jews, takes place in Baghdad.


1941  World War II: the Battle of Crete ends as Crete capitulates to Germany.

1929  The 1st Conference of the Communist Parties of Latin America is held in Buenos Aires.

1921  Tulsa Race Riot: civil unrest in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Tulsa Race Riot of 1921:

Racism: Some Pertinent Articles from

Racism in Sports:

Racism in Beauty Contests:

Case Study (1): Apartheid of South Africa:

Case Study (2): Nuremberg Laws of Nazi Germany:

1918  World War I, Western Front: Battle for Belleau Wood – Allied Forces under John J. Pershing and James Harbord engage Imperial German Forces under Wilhelm, German Crown Prince.

1916  Louis Brandeis becomes the first Jew appointed to the United States Supreme Court.

1913  The Greek–Serbian Treaty of Alliance is signed, paving the way for the Second Balkan War.

Second Balkan War:

First Balkan War:

Balkan Wars (Overviews):

Greek State:

Modern History of Greece:

1879  Napoleon Eugene, the last dynastic Bonaparte, is killed in the Anglo-Zulu War.

1868  The Treaty of Bosque Redondo is signed, allowing the Navajos to return to their lands in Arizona and New Mexico.

1831  James Clark Ross discovers the Magnetic North Pole.

1815  Napoleon promulgates a revised Constitution after it passes a plebiscite.

1812  War of 1812: The U.S. President James Madison asks the Congress to declare war on the United Kingdom.

1794  The battle of the Glorious First of June is fought, the first naval engagement between Britain and France during the French Revolutionary Wars.




2012  The former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak is sentenced to life imprisonment for his role in the killing of demonstrators during the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

Hosni Mubarak:

2011 Egyptian Revolution:

Arab Spring:

Arab Spring and the CIA:

Arab Spring and Al-Qaeda:

Arab Spring and Israel:

1999  The Bhutan Broadcasting Service brings television transmissions to the Kingdom for the first time.

1967  Protests in West Berlin against the arrival of the Shah of Iran turn into riots, during which Benno Ohnesorg is killed by a police officer. His death results in the founding of the terrorist group Movement 2 June.

1955  The USSR and Yugoslavia sign the Belgrade declaration and thus normalize relations between both countries, discontinued since 1948.

Belgrade Declaration:

1946  Birth of the Italian Republic: In a referendum, Italians vote to turn Italy from a monarchy into a Republic. After the referendum, King Umberto II of Italy is exiled.

History of Italian Republic:

1941  World War II: German paratoopers murder Greek civilians in the village of Kondomari.

Massacre of Konodmari:

1924  The US President Calvin Coolidge signs the Indian Citizenship Act into law, granting citizenship to all Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the United States.

1910  Charles Rolls, a co-founder of Rolls-Royce Limited, becomes the first man to make a non-stop double crossing of the English Channel by plane

1909  Alfred Deakin becomes Prime Minister of Australia for the third time.

1896  Guglielmo Marconi applies for a patent for his newest invention, the radio.

1876  Hristo Botev, a national revolutionary of Bulgaria, is killed in Stara Planina

1866  Fenian raids: the Fenians are victorious over Canadian forces in both the Battle of Ridgeway and the Battle of Fort Erie.

1848  The Slavic congress in Prague begins.

1805  Napoleonic Wars: A FrancoSpanish fleet recaptures Diamond Rock, an uninhabited island at the entrance to the bay leading to Fort-de-France, from the British.

1793  French Revolution: François Hanriot, leader of the Parisian National Guard, arrests 22 Girondists selected by Jean-Paul Marat, setting the stage for the Reign of Terror.

1774  Intolerable Acts: The Quartering Act is enacted, allowing a governor in colonial America to house British soldiers in uninhabited houses, outhouses, barns, or other buildings if suitable quarters are not provided.




2013  The trial of United States Army private Chelsea Manning for leaking classified material to WikiLeaks begins in Fort Meade, Maryland.

Chelsea Manning:

Chelsea Manning Trial:

2006  The State Union of Serbia and Montenegro comes to an end with Montenegro‘s formal declaration of independence. [Note that two days later, on June 5, 2006, Serbia declared independence from the State Union.  This means that the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro officially ceased to exist on that day, although the State Union de facto ended on June 3, 2006, the day Montenegro declared its independence from the State Union.]

State Union of Serbia and Montenegro:

Independence of Montenegro from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro on June 3, 2006:

History of Montenegro:

History of Yugoslavia:

Breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (a.k.a. Tito’s Yugoslavia):

Tito’s Yugoslavia:

1992  Aboriginal Land Rights are granted in Australia in Mabo v Queensland (No 2), a case brought by Eddie Mabo.

Aboriginal Land Rights in Australia:

Indigenous Australians:

Stolen Generations:

Kevin Rudd’s Apology in February 2008:

1989  The government of China sends troops to force protesters out of Tiananmen Square after seven weeks of occupation.

Tiananmen Square, Beijing:

Tiananmen Square Massacre of 1989:

1987  The Vanuatu Labour Party is founded.

1984  Operation Blue Star, a military offensive, is launched by the Indian government at Harmandir Sahib, also known as the Golden Temple, the holiest shrine for the Sikhs, in Amritsar. The operation continues until June 6, with casualties, most of them civilians, in excess of 5,000.

1983  Director John Badham’s frightening motion picture “War Games,” starring actor Matthew Broderick, premiered at U.S. theaters.

1982  The Israeli ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov, is shot on a London street. He survives but is permanently paralyzed.

1979  A blowout at the Ixtoc I oil well in the southern Gulf of Mexico causes at least 3,000,000 barrels (480,000 m3) of oil to be spilled into the waters, the second-worst accidental oil spill ever recorded.

1963  The Buddhist crisis: Soldiers of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam attack protesting Buddhists in Huế, South Vietnam, with liquid chemicals from tear-gas grenades, causing 67 people to be hospitalised for blistering of the skin and respiratory ailments.

1959  Singapore was declared a self-governing state even though it was still a part of the British Empire.

History of Singapore:


Singaporean Self-Rule:

1950  The first successful ascent of an Eight-thousander; the summit of Annapurna is reached by Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal.

1943  In Los Angeles, California, white U.S. Navy sailors and Marines clash with Latino youths in the Zoot Suit Riots.

1942 World War II: Japan begins the Aleutian Islands Campaign by bombing Unalaska Island.

1941  World War II: The Wehrmacht razes the Greek village of Kandanos to the ground, killing 180 of its inhabitants.

Massacre of Kondomari:

1940  Franz Rademacher proposes plans to make Madagascar the “Jewish homeland”, an idea that had first been considered by 19th century journalist Theodor Herzl.

1940  World War II: The Battle of Dunkirk ends with a German victory and with Allied forces in full retreat.

1940  World War II: The Luftwaffe bombs Paris.

1916  The National Defense Act is signed into law, increasing the size of the United States National Guard by 450,000 men.

1889  The first long-distance electric power transmission line in the United States is completed, running 14 miles (23 km) between a generator at Willamette Falls and downtown Portland, Oregon.

1885  In the last military engagement fought on Canadian soil, the Cree leader, Big Bear, escapes the North-West Mounted Police.

1839  In Humen, China, Lin Tse-hsü destroys 1.2 million kg of opium confiscated from British merchants, providing Britain with a casus belli to open hostilities, resulting in the First Opium War.





2012  US drone attack kills 15 [or 16] militants in Pakistan, including high ranking al-Qaeda official, Abu Yahya al-Libi.

For drones, including those for military use, in general, visit the following websites, for instance, among many others:

Drone Attacks:

Various Problems on the Military Drone:

Other Related Issues of the Military Drones:

Abū Yahyā al-Lībī:


2001  Gyanendra, the last King of Nepal, ascends to the throne after the massacre in the Royal Palace.

From the Abolishment of Monarchy to the Democratization of Nepal:

Democracy Movement of Nepal in 2006:

Political Turmoil in Nepal in 2005:

History of Nepal:


Foreign Relations of Nepal:

Nepal-Britain Relations:

Economy of Nepal:

1998  Terry Nichols is sentenced to life in prison for his role in the Oklahoma City bombing.

Terry Nichols:

Oklahoma City Bombing:

Oklahoma City Bombing Trial:

1989  Solidarity‘s victory in the first (somewhat) free parliamentary elections in post-war Poland sparks off a succession of peaceful anti-communist revolutions in Eastern Europe, leads to the creation of the so-called Contract Sejm and begins the Autumn of Nations.

History of Solidarity Trade Union of Poland:

Martial Law and Solidarity on December 13, 1981:

History of Poland:


Foreign Relations of Poland:

Economy of Poland:

1989  The Tiananmen Square protests are violently ended in Beijing by the People’s Liberation Army, with at least 241 dead.

Tiananmen Square, Beijing:

Tiananmen Square Massacre of 1989:

1989  Ali Khamenei is elected as the new Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran by the Assembly of Experts after the death and funeral of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

1986  Jonathan Pollard pleads guilty to espionage for selling top secret United States military intelligence to Israel.

1979  Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings takes power in Ghana after a military coup in which General Fred Akuffo is overthrown.


Foreign Relations of Ghana:

History of Ghana:

Economy of Ghana:

1970  Tonga gains independence from the United Kingdom.


History of Tonga:

Economy of Tonga:

1961  In the Vienna summit, the Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev sparks the Berlin Crisis by threatening to sign a separate peace treaty with East Germany and ending American, British and French access to East Berlin.

Vienna Summit of June 1961:

1944  World War II: Rome falls to the Allies, the first Axis capital to fall.

1944  World War II: A hunter-killer group of the United States Navy captures the German submarine U-505 – the first time a U.S. Navy vessel had captured an enemy vessel at sea since the 19th century.

1943  A military coup in Argentina ousts Ramón Castillo.

1942  World War II: The Battle of Midway begins. The Japanese Admiral Chuichi Nagumo orders a strike on Midway Island by much of the Imperial Japanese navy.

1941  Croatia orders all Jews to wear a star with the letter Z.

Independent State of Croatia (a.k.a. NDH), a Nazi Subject State, during World War II:

NDH and the Jasenovac Concentration Camp:

Vatican and the Ustashe:

Bleiburg Massacre of Croats by the Allied Power (British) in May 1945 Just After WWII in Europe:

1941  Nazis forbid Jews access to beaches & swimming pools.

Discrimination against the Jewish People and the Holocaust:

History of Nazi Germany:

1940  World War II: The Dunkirk evacuation ends – British forces complete evacuation of 338,000 troops from Dunkirk in France. To rally the morale of the country, Winston Churchill delivers his famous “We shall fight on the beaches” speech.

1939  Holocaust: The MS St. Louis, a ship carrying 963 Jewish refugees, is denied permission to land in Florida, in the United States, after already being turned away from Cuba. Forced to return to Europe, more than 200 of its passengers later die in Nazi concentration camps.

MS St. Louis:

1932  Marmaduke Grove and other Chilean military officers lead a coup d’etat establishing the short-lived Socialist Republic of Chile.

1928  The President of the Republic of China, Zhang Zuolin, is assassinated by Japanese agents.

1920  Hungary loses 71% of its territory and 63% of its population when the Treaty of Trianon is signed in Paris.

1919  Women’s rights: The U.S. Congress approves the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guarantees suffrage to women, and sends it to the U.S. states for ratification.

Women’s Suffrage in the United States:

History of Women’s Suffrage (Movement) in the United States:

The Nineteenth Amendment and Women’s Suffrage:

League of Women Voters:

Women’s Suffrage and Its History:

Women’s Rights in General:

1916  World War I: Russia opens the Brusilov Offensive with an artillery barrage of Austro-Hungarian lines in Galicia.

Brusilov Offensive:


1896  Henry Ford completes the Ford Quadricycle, his first gasoline-powered automobile, and gives it a successful test run.

1878  Cyprus Convention: The Ottoman Empire cedes Cyprus to the United Kingdom but retains nominal title.

Cyprus Convention of 1878:

History of the Ottoman Empire:

1859  Italian Independence wars: In the Battle of Magenta, the French army, under Louis-Napoleon, defeat the Austrian army.

1825  General Lafayette, a French officer in the American Revolutionary War, speaks at what would become Lafayette Square, Buffalo, during his visit to the United States.

1794  British troops capture Port-au-Prince in Haiti.

History of Haiti :

Haiti :

Foreign Relations of Haiti :

Economy of Haiti :


(Sources and references:   to june_4;   to june/4;   to june_4.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 29 May 2017.

Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: This Week in History, is included. Thank you.

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