This Week in History

HISTORY, 15 Aug 2016

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

TWH logo history

Aug 15-21

QUOTE OF THE WEEK:

“[W]e tend to underestimate the power of one person.  One committed, determined person filled with lights can move mountains.”  – China Brooks (4 min. 51 sec. – 5 min. 04 sec.)

 

AUGUST 15

2014  The European Union will assist Iraq in fighting Islamic State militants; European nations and the EU are sending arms in addition to humanitarian aid.

2013  The Smithsonian announces the discovery of the olinguito, the first new carnivoran species found in the Americas in 35 years.

2013  At least 27 people are killed and 226 injured in an explosion in southern Beirut near a complex used by Lebanon’s militant group Hezbollah in Lebanon. A previously unknown Syrian Sunni group claims responsibility in an online video.

2007  An 8.0-magnitude earthquake off the Pacific coast devastates Ica and various regions of Peru killing 514 and injuring 1,090.

2005  The Helsinki Agreement between the Free Aceh Movement and the Government of Indonesia was signed, ending 28 years of fighting.

Helsinki Agreement of 2005 (a.k.a. Ache Peace Agreement):

2005  Israel’s unilateral disengagement plan to evict all Israelis from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the northern West Bank begins.

1999  Beni Ounif massacre in Algeria: Some 29 people are killed at a false roadblock near the Moroccan border, leading to temporary tensions with Morocco.

1998  Omagh bombing in Northern Ireland, the worst terrorist incident of The Troubles.

Omagh Bombing of 1998:

The Troubles:

IRA’s Terrorism/The Troubles:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

IRA’s Terrorism:

History of the IRA:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1995  In South Carolina, Shannon Faulkner becomes the first female cadet matriculated at The Citadel (she drops out less than a week later).

1991  US performs nuclear at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1984  The Kurdistan Workers’ Party in Turkey starts a campaign of armed attacks upon the Turkish military with an attack on police and gendarmerie bases in Şemdinli and Eruh

1977  The Big Ear, a radio telescope operated by Ohio State University as part of the SETI project, receives a radio signal from deep space; the event is named the “Wow! signal” from the notation made by a volunteer on the project.

1975  Takeo Miki makes the first official pilgrimage to Yasukuni Shrine by an incumbent prime minister on the anniversary of the end of World War II.

Controversies over Yasukuni Shrine:

1975  Bangladesh‘s founder Sheikh Mujibur Rahman is killed along with most members of his family during a military coup.

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman:

History of Bangladesh:

Bangladesh Liberation War:

History of Pakistan:

1974  Yuk Young-soo, First Lady of South Korea, is killed during an apparent assassination attempt upon President, Park Chung-hee.

Assassination of South Korean First Lady, Yuk Young-soo:

Park Geun-hey, whose mother was Yuk Young-soo, Becomes the 11th President of the Republic of Korea in February 2013:

1974  France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island.

Muruora:

History of France Nuclear Tests in the Pacific:

France’s Nuclear Tests:

1973  USSR performs nuclear test at South Kazakhstan, USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1973:

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

1973  Vietnam War: The United States bombing of Cambodia ends.

Vietnam War in 1973:

Bombing of Cambodia:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

Vietnam War Peace Talks/Negotiations:

Anti-Viet Nam War Movement:

197Bahrain gains independence from the United Kingdom.

Independence of Bahrain:

Bahrain:

Foreign Relations of Bahrain:

Human Rights in Bahrain:

History of Bahrain:

Economy of Bahrain:

1971  President Richard Nixon completes the break from the gold standard by ending convertibility of the United States dollar into gold by foreign investors.

The Gold Standard:

The End of the Gold Standard:

1970  Patricia Palinkas becomes the first woman to play professionally in an American football game.

Women’s American Football:

1968  USSR performs nuclear test at Sary Shagan USSR.

USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Sary Shagon Test Site:

196President Fulbert Youlou is overthrown in the Republic of the Congo, after a three-day uprising in the capital.

Trois Glorieuses (Three Glorious Days) of 1963:

Republic of the Congo:

History of the Republic of Congo:

1963  Execution of Henry John Burnett, the last man to be hanged in Scotland.

1962  James Joseph Dresnok defects to North Korea after running across the Korean Demilitarized Zone. Dresnok still resides in the capital, Pyongyang.

1961  Border guard Conrad Schumann flees from East Germany while on duty guarding the construction of the Berlin Wall.

Construction of the Berlin Wall (1961-1962):

The Fall of the Belin Wall of 1989:

History of German Democratic Republic (East Germany):

History of Germany:

196Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville) becomes independent from France.

1954  Alfredo Stroessner begins his dictatorship in Paraguay.

History of Paraguay:

Alfredo Stroessner and His Regime:

194The Republic of Korea is established south of the 38th parallel north.

Republic of Korea:

The 38th Parallel North:

1947  Founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah is sworn in as first Governor-General of Pakistan in Karachi.

History of Pakistan:

Muhammad Ali Jinnah:

1947  India gains Independence from the British Indian Empire after near 190 years of Crown rule and joins the Commonwealth of Nations.

Independence of India:

History of India:

India’s Independence, Nonviolence Movement, and Gandhi:

1945  Japanese Emperor, Hirohito, broadcasts to the Japanese public, at noon Japan Time, that his government accepted the Potsdam Declaration, which means Japan’s unconditional surrender to the Allied Powers. The Japanese representatives sign the Instrument of Surrender on September 2, 1945.

Japan’s Surrender:

What Made the Japanese Government Decide to Surrender? The Atomic Bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, or Something Else? :

Hirohito (Japanese Emperor), and World War II in the Asia-Pacific Theater:

World War II in the Asia-Pacific Theater:

Impacts and/or After-effects of Japan’s Surrender:

1944  World War II: Operation Dragoon: Allied forces land in southern France.

1942  World War II: Operation Pedestal: The SS Ohio reaches the island of Malta barely afloat carrying vital fuel supplies for the island’s defenses.

1941  Corporal Josef Jakobs is executed by firing squad at the Tower of London at 07:12, making him the last person to be executed at the Tower for espionage.

1940  An Italian submarine torpedoes and sinks the Greek cruiser Elli at Tinos harbor during peacetime, marking the most serious Italian provocation prior to the outbreak of the Greco-Italian War in October.

1935  Will Rogers and Wiley Post are killed after their aircraft develops engine problems during takeoff in Barrow, Alaska.

1920  Polish–Soviet War: Battle of Warsaw, so-called Miracle at the Vistula.

1915  A story in New York World newspaper reveals that the Imperial German government had purchased excess phenol from Thomas Edison that could be used to make explosives for the war effort and diverted it to Bayer for aspirin production.

1914  World War I: Beginning of the Battle of Cer, the first Allied victory of World War I.

1914  World War I: The First Russian Army, led by Paul von Rennenkampf, enters East Prussia.

1914  The Panama Canal opens to traffic with the transit of the cargo ship SS Ancon.

Panama Canal:

1907  Ordination in Constantinople of Fr. Raphael Morgan, the first African-American Orthodox priest, “Priest-Apostolic” to America and the West Indies.

1893  Ibadan area becomes a British Protectorate after a treaty signed by Fijabi, the Baale of Ibadan with the British acting Governor of Lagos, George C. Denton.

Ibadan:

1869  The Meiji government in Japan establishes six new ministries, including one for Shinto.

Meiji Government and Shinto:

1863  The Anglo-Satsuma War begins between the Satsuma Domain of Japan and the United Kingdom (Traditional Japanese date: July 2, 1863).

1843  The Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace in Honolulu, Hawaii is dedicated. Now the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu, it is the oldest Roman Catholic cathedral in continuous use in the United States.

Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace in Honolulu, Hawaii:

History of Hawaii:

1824  The Marquis de Lafayette, the last surviving French general of the American Revolutionary War, arrives in New York and begins a tour of 24 states.

1812  War of 1812: The Battle of Fort Dearborn is fought between United States troops and Potawatomi at what is now Chicago, Illinois.

1760  Seven Years’ War: Battle of LiegnitzFrederick the Great‘s victory over the Austrians under Ernst Gideon von Laudon.

Battle of Liegnitz:

Seven Years’ War:

1695  French forces end the bombardment of Brussels, leaving a third of the buildings in the city in ruins.

 

 

AGUSUT 16

2013  The ferry St. Thomas Aquinas collides with a cargo ship and sinks at Cebu, Philippines, killing 61 people and 59 others missing.

2012  The US State Department states the UN Secretary-General’s decision to attend the 120-member Non-Aligned Movement summit is ‘strange’ and ‘not a good signal’.

Non-Aligned Movement:

2012  South African police fatally shoot 34 miners and wound 78 more during an industrial dispute near Rustenburg.

1989  A solar flare from the Sun creates a geomagnetic storm that affects micro chips, leading to a halt of all trading on Toronto’s stock market.

Solar Flares and Humans:

1977  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nevada Test Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1972  In an unsuccessful coup d’état attempt, the Royal Moroccan Air Force fires upon Hassan II of Morocco‘s plane while he is traveling back to Rabat.

1972  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1972:

Semipalitinsk Nuclear Test Site:

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

196Vietnam War: The House Un-American Activities Committee begins investigations of Americans who have aided the Viet Cong. The committee intends to introduce legislation making these activities illegal. Anti-war demonstrators disrupt the meeting and 50 people are arrested.

Vietnam War in 1966:

Anti-War Demonstrations and the US Congress:

Viet Cong:

1964  Vietnam War: A coup d’état replaces Dương Văn Minh with General Nguyễn Khánh as President of South Vietnam. A new constitution is established with aid from the US Embassy.

Vietnam War in 1964:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1962  Eight years after the remaining French India territories were handed to India, the ratifications of the treaty are exchanged to make the transfer official.

Return of the French India Territories to India:

1960  Cyprus gains its independence from the United Kingdom.

Independence of Cyprus:

Cyprus:

Foreign Relations of Cyprus:

History of Cyprus:

Economy of Cyprus:

1946  The All Hyderabad Trade Union Congress is founded in Secunderabad.

1946  Mass riots in Kolkata begin, in which more than 4,000 would be killed in 72 hours.

Calcutta Riots of 1946:

194The National Representatives’ Congress, the precursor of the current National Assembly of Vietnam, convenes in Sơn Dương.

National Assembly of Vietnam in 1945:

Independence of Vietnam:

History of Vietnam:

1945  Puyi, the last Chinese emperor and ruler of Manchukuo, is captured by Soviet troops.

1945  An assassination attempt is made on Japan’s prime minister, Kantarō Suzuki.

Assassination Attempt of Kantaro Suzuki:

1942  World War II: The two-person crew of the U.S. naval blimp L-8 disappears without a trace on a routine anti-submarine patrol over the Pacific Ocean. The blimp drifts without her crew and crash-lands in Daly City, California.

1929  The 1929 Palestine riots break out in Mandatory Palestine between Palestinian Arabs and Jews and continue until the end of the month. In total, 133 Jews and 116 Arabs are killed.

1929 Palestine Riots

1923  The United Kingdom gives the name “Ross Dependency” to part of its claimed Antarctic territory and makes the Governor General of the Dominion of New Zealand its administrator.

1920  Polish–Soviet War: The Battle of Radzymin concludes; the Soviet Red Army is forced to turn away from Warsaw.

Polish-Soviet War:

History of Poland:

1920  The congress of the Communist Party of Bukhara opens. The congress would call for armed revolution.

1920  Ray Chapman of the Cleveland Indians is hit on the head by a fastball thrown by Carl Mays of the New York Yankees, and dies early the next day. Chapman was the second player to die from injuries sustained in a Major League Baseball game, the first being Doc Powers in 1909.

1918  The Battle of Lake Baikal was fought between the Czechoslovak legion and the Red Army.

1913  Tōhoku Imperial University of Japan (modern day Tohoku University) becomes the first university in Japan to admit female students.

Admittance of Female Students by the University of Tohoku:

1906  An estimated 8.2 MW earthquake hits Valparaíso, Chile, killing 3,886 people.

190The Battle of Elands River during the Second Boer War ends after a 13-day siege is lifted by the British. The battle had begun when a force of between 2,000 and 3,000 Boers had surrounded a force of 500 Australians, Rhodesians, Canadians and British soldiers at a supply dump at Brakfontein Drift.

Battle of Elands River:

Second Boer War:

1896  Skookum Jim Mason, George Carmack and Dawson Charlie discover gold in a tributary of the Klondike River in Canada, setting off the Klondike Gold Rush.

1891  The Basilica of San Sebastian in Manila, the first all-steel church in Asia, is officially inaugurated and blessed.

1870  Franco-Prussian War: The Battle of Mars-la-Tour is fought, resulting in a Prussian victory.

1869  Battle of Acosta Ñu: A Paraguayan battalion made up of children is massacred by the Brazilian Army during the Paraguayan War.

1863  The Dominican Restoration War begins when Gregorio Luperón raises the Dominican flag in Santo Domingo after Spain had recolonized the country.

1859  The Tuscan National Assembly formally deposes the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.

1858  US President James Buchanan inaugurates the new transatlantic telegraph cable by exchanging greetings with Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. However, a weak signal forces a shutdown of the service in a few weeks.

1841  US President John Tyler vetoes a bill which called for the re-establishment of the Second Bank of the United States. Enraged Whig Party members riot outside the White House in the most violent demonstration on White House grounds in U.S. history.

1819  Peterloo Massacre: Seventeen people die and over 600 are injured in cavalry charges at a public meeting at St. Peter’s Field, Manchester, England.

1812  War of 1812: American General William Hull surrenders Fort Detroit without a fight to the British Army.

1793  French Revolution: A levée en masse is decreed by the National Convention.

1792  Maximilien de Robespierre presents the petition of the Commune of Paris to the Legislative Assembly, which demanded the formation of a revolutionary tribunal.

 

 

AUGUST 17

2005  Over 500 bombs are set off by terrorists at 300 locations in 63 out of the 64 districts of Bangladesh.

Bomb Blasts in Bangladesh of 2005:

Terrorism and Islam? :

Religious Terrorism:

2005  The first forced evacuation of settlers, as part of Israel’s unilateral disengagement plan, starts.

Israel’s Unilateral Disengagement Plan:

2004  The National Assembly of Serbia unanimously adopts new state symbols for Serbia: Bože pravde becomes the new anthem and the coat of arms is adopted for the whole country.

1999  A 7.4-magnitude earthquake strikes İzmit, Turkey, killing more than 17,000 and injuring 44,000.

1988  President of Pakistan Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq and U.S. Ambassador Arnold Raphel are killed in a plane crash.

1988  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons (Overview):

Nevada Test Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1982  The first Compact Discs (CDs) are released to the public in Germany.

History of the Compact Disc:

1978  Double Eagle II becomes first balloon to cross the Atlantic Ocean when it lands in Miserey, France near Paris, 137 hours after leaving Presque Isle, Maine.

1977  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1977:

USSR Nuclear Tests:

Nuclear Testing at Semipalitinsk/Kazakhstan:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1983  Hurricane Alicia hits the Texas coast, killing 22 people and causing over US$1 billion in damage (1983 dollars).

1979  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1979:

USSR Nuclear Tests:

Nuclear Testing at Semipalitinsk/Kazakhstan:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1977  The Soviet icebreaker Arktika becomes the first surface ship to reach the North Pole.

Arktika:

1970  Venera program: Venera 7 launched. It will later become the first spacecraft to successfully transmit data from the surface of another planet (Venus).

Venera Program:

Venera 7:

1962  East German border guards kill Peter Fechter, 18, as he attempts to cross the Berlin Wall into West Berlin becoming one of the first victims of the wall.

Berlin Wall:

1960  Decolonization: Gabon gains independence from France.

Independence of Gabon:

Gabon:

Foreign Relations of Gabon:

History of Gabon:

Economy of Gabon:

1959  Quake Lake is formed by the magnitude 7.5 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake near Hebgen Lake in Montana.

Quake Lake in Montana:

1958  Pioneer 0, America’s first attempt at lunar orbit, is launched using the first Thor-Able rocket and fails. Notable as one of the first attempted launches beyond Earth orbit by any country.

1953  Addiction: First meeting of Narcotics Anonymous in Southern California.

1950  Hill 303 massacre: American POWs are shot to death by the North Korean Army.

1947  The Radcliffe Line, the border between Dominion of India and Dominion of Pakistan is revealed.

1945  Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta proclaim the independence of Indonesia, igniting the Indonesian National Revolution against the Dutch Empire.

History of Indonesia:

The National Revolution:

1943  World War II: First Québec Conference of Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and William Lyon Mackenzie King begins.

1943  World War II: The Royal Air Force begins Operation Hydra, the first air raid of the Operation Crossbow strategic bombing campaign against Germany’s V-weapon program.

1943  World War II: The U.S. Seventh Army under General George S. Patton arrives in Messina, Italy, followed several hours later by the British 8th Army under Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery, thus completing the Allied conquest of Sicily.

1943  World War II: The U.S. Eighth Air Force suffers the loss of 60 bombers on the Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission.

1942  World War II: US Marines raid the Japanese-held Pacific island of Makin (Butaritari).

1941  World War II: Soviet Army left Nikolaev and Krivoi Rog.

1918  Bolshevik revolutionary leader Moisei Uritsky is assassinated.

1915  Jewish American Leo Frank is lynched for the alleged murder of a 13-year-old girl in Marietta, Georgia, United States.

1914  World War I: Battle of Stallupönen – The German army of General Hermann von François defeats the Russian force commanded by Paul von Rennenkampf near modern-day Nesterov, Russia.

1866  The Grand Duchy of Baden announces her withdrawal from the German Confederation and signs a treaty of peace and alliance with Prussia.

1862  American Indian Wars: The Dakota War of 1862 begins in Minnesota as Lakota warriors attack white settlements along the Minnesota River.

Dakota War of 1862:

Wars of Native People of North America:

Native People of America (a.k.a. American Indians):

History of Native People of America:

1798  The Vietnamese Roman Catholics report a Marian apparition in Quảng Trị, an event which is called Lady of La Vang.

1771  Edinburgh botanist James Robertson makes the first recorded ascent of Ben Nevis in Scotland

1717 Austro-Turkish War of 1716–18: The month-long Siege of Belgrade ends with Prince Eugene of Savoy‘s Austrian troops capturing the city from the Ottoman Empire.

 

 

AUGUST 18

2008  President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf resigns under threat of impeachment.

2005  A massive power blackout hits the Indonesian island of Java, affecting almost 100 million people, the one of the largest and most widespread power outages in history.

1989 Leading presidential hopeful Luis Carlos Galán is assassinated near Bogotá in Colombia.

1983  USSR performs nuclear tests at Novaya Zemlya, USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1983:

USSR Nuclear Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Test Site:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1983  Hurricane Alicia hits the Texas coast, killing 22 people and causing over US$1 billion in damage (1983 dollars).

1979  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1979:

USSR Nuclear Tests:

Nuclear Testing at Semipalitinsk/Kazakhstan:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1977  Steve Biko is arrested at a police roadblock under the Terrorism Act No 83 of 1967 in King William’s Town, South Africa. He later dies from injuries sustained during this arrest bringing attention to South Africa’s apartheid policies.

Apartheid in South Africa (Overview):

Steve Biko:

History of Apartheid (South Africa):

1976  In the Korean Demilitarized Zone at Panmunjom, the Axe murder incident results in the death of two US soldiers.

1971 Vietnam War: Australia and New Zealand decide to withdraw their troops from Vietnam.

Withdrawal of the Austrian and New Zealand Military Forces from Vietnam War:

Vietnam War in 1971:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

Anti-Viet Nam War Movement or Opposition to United States Involvement in the Vietnam War:

1966  Vietnam War: the Battle of Long Tan ensues after a patrol from the 6th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment clashes with a Viet Cong force in Phước Tuy Province.

Vietnam War in 1966:

Battle of Long Tan of 1966:

Viet Cong:

1965  Vietnam War: Operation Starlite begins – United States Marines destroy a Viet Cong stronghold on the Van Tuong peninsula in the first major American ground battle of the war.

Vietnam War in 1965:

Operation Starlite:

Viet Cong:                

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1963  American civil rights movement: James Meredith becomes the first black person to graduate from the University of Mississippi.

James Meredith:

History of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States – Overview:

Civil Rights Movements of Various Ethnic Minorities in the United States:

Nonviolence, Movements against Racism, and More:

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination:

One of the Historical Cases – Nuremberg Laws of Nazi Germany:

One of the Historical Cases – Apartheid of South Africa:

Sports and Racism:

Beauty Contest and Racism

1957  US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Nevada Test Site.

Atmospheric Nuclear Testing at the Nevada Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1950  Julien Lahaut, the chairman of the Communist Party of Belgium is assassinated by far-right elements.

1945  Sukarno takes office as the first president of Indonesia, following the country’s declaration of independence the previous day.

1938  The Thousand Islands Bridge, connecting New York, United States with Ontario, Canada over the Saint Lawrence River, is dedicated by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

1920  The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, guaranteeing women’s suffrage.

1917  A Great Fire in Thessaloniki, Greece destroys 32% of the city leaving 70,000 individuals homeless.

1903  German engineer Karl Jatho allegedly flies his self-made, motored gliding airplane four months before the first flight of the Wright brothers.

1891  Major hurricane strikes Martinique, leaving 700 dead.

1877  Asaph Hall discovers Martian moon Phobos.

1870  Franco-Prussian War: Battle of Gravelotte is fought.

1868  French astronomer Pierre Janssen discovers helium.

1843  Camila O’Gorman and Ladislao Gutierrez are executed on the orders of Argentine dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas.

1838  The Wilkes Expedition, which would explore the Puget Sound and Antarctica, weighs anchor at Hampton Roads.

1783  A huge fireball meteor is seen across Great Britain as it passes over the east coast.

 

 

AUGUST 19

2010  Operation Iraqi Freedom ends, with the last of the United States brigade combat teams crossing the border to Kuwait.

Operation Iraq Freedom:

Timelines of the Iraq War:

2009  A series of bombings in Baghdad, Iraq, kills 101 and injures 565 others.

2005  – The first-ever joint military exercise between Russia and China, called Peace Mission 2005 begins.

2003  A suicide attack on a bus in Jerusalem, Israel, planned by Hamas, kills 23 Israelis, seven of them children, in the Shmuel HaNavi bus bombing.

2003  A car-bomb attack on United Nations headquarters in Iraq kills the agency’s top envoy Sérgio Vieira de Mello and 21 other employees.

2002  Khankala Mi-26 crash: A Russian Mil Mi-26 helicopter carrying troops is hit by a Chechen missile outside Grozny, killing 118 soldiers.

1999  In Belgrade, Yugoslavia, tens of thousands of Serbians rally to demand the resignation of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia President Slobodan Milošević.

Slobodan Milošević:

1991  Crown Heights riot: Black groups target Hasidic Jews on the streets of Crown Heights in New York, New York for three days, after two black children were hit by a car driven by a Hasidic man.

1991  Dissolution of the Soviet Union, August Coup: Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev is placed under house arrest while on holiday in the town of Foros, Ukraine.

1991 Soviet coup d’état attempt:

1989  Several hundred East Germans cross the frontier between Hungary and Austria during the Pan-European Picnic, part of the events that began the process of the Fall of the Berlin Wall.

1989  Radio Caroline, the offshore pirate station in the North Sea, is raided by British and Dutch governments.

Radio Caroline:

1989  Polish president Wojciech Jaruzelski nominates Solidarity activist Tadeusz Mazowiecki to be the first non-communist prime minister in 42 years.

1987  Hungerford massacre: In the United Kingdom, Michael Ryan kills sixteen people with a semi-automatic rifle and then commits suicide.

1981  Gulf of Sidra Incident: United States fighters intercept and shoot down two Libyan Sukhoi Su-22 fighter jets over the Gulf of Sidra.

1980  Saudia Flight 163, a Lockheed L-1011 TriStar burns after making an emergency landing at King Khalid International Airport in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, killing 301 people.

1978  Cinema Rex fire provoked more of 400 deaths.

1977  USSR performs nuclear test at Sary Shagan USSR.

USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Sary-Shagan Nuclear Test Site:

1965  Japanese prime minister Eisaku Satō becomes the first post-World War II sitting prime minister to visit Okinawa Prefecture.

Eisaku Sato:

Eisaku Sato and Okinawa:

Japan’s Non-Nuclear Weapons Policy:

A Secret Nuclear Weapons Agreement between the United States and Japan, signed by the President of the United States (Richard Nixon) and the Prime Minister of Japan (Eisaku Sato = a Nobel Peace Prize Laureate):

Okinawa and Nuclear Weapons:

A Huge Explosion Sound Heard and a Huge Mushroom Cloud Witnessed near Kumé Island, Okinawa, on May 21, 2014. An Explosion of an Underwater Volcano in the Region, an Explosion of a Nuclear Device, or Something Else? :

Okinawa and Agent Orange:

For more relevant information on Agent Orange, visit This Week in History, the date of AUGUST 10, 1961: First use in Vietnam War of the Agent Orange by the US Army., and/or the TMS Archive Search.

US Biological Weapon Experiments in Okinawa

Okinawa Travel Guide:

History of Okinawa:

Okinawa and World War II:

US Occupation of Okinawa:

The Origin or One of the Main Origins of the Presence of the United States Military in Okinawa:

The Presence of the United States Military in Okinawa:

1964  Syncom 3, the first geostationary communication satellite, was launched.

1960  Sputnik program: Korabl-Sputnik 2: The Soviet Union launches the satellite with the dogs Belka and Strelka, 40 mice, two rats and a variety of plants.

Sputnik Program:

Korabl-Sputnik 2 (a.k.a. Sputnik 5):

1960  Cold War: In Moscow, Russia, Soviet Union, downed American U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers is sentenced to ten years imprisonment by the Soviet Union for espionage.

1953  Cold War: The CIA and MI6 help to overthrow the government of Mohammad Mosaddegh in Iran and reinstate the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

CIA/MI6’s Attempt of Overthrowing Mohammad Mosaddegh’s Government of Iran (1953):

1945  August Revolution: Viet Minh led by Ho Chi Minh take power in Hanoi, Vietnam.

Vietnam’s August Revolution of 1945:

1944  World War II: Liberation of Paris: Paris, France rises against German occupation with the help of Allied troops.

1942  World War II: Operation Jubilee: The 2nd Canadian Infantry Division leads an amphibious assault by allied forces on Dieppe, Seine-Maritime, France and fails, many Canadians are killed or captured. The operation was intended to develop and try new amphibious landing tactics for the coming full invasion in Normandy.

1940  First flight of the B-25 Mitchell medium bomber.

1934  The creation of the position Führer is approved by the German electorate with 89.9% of the popular vote.

1927  Metropolitan Sergius proclaims the declaration of loyalty of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Soviet Union.

1919  Afghanistan gains full independence from the United Kingdom.

Independence of Afghanistan:

Afghanistan:

History of Afghanistan:

Economy of Afghanistan:

191The Ottoman-Bulgarian alliance is signed in Sofia.

Ottoman-Bulgarian Alliance:

Ottoman Empire and World War I:

Russia and Turkey in World War I:

Ottoman Empire:

1862  American Indian Wars: During an uprising in Minnesota, Lakota warriors decide not to attack heavily-defended Fort Ridgely and instead turn to the settlement of New Ulm, killing white settlers along the way.

Dakota War of 1862:

Wars of Native People of North America:

History of Native People of America:

1861  First ascent of Weisshorn, fifth highest summit in the Alps.

1854  The First Sioux War begins when United States Army soldiers kill Lakota chief Conquering Bear and in return are massacred.

1848  California Gold Rush: The New York Herald breaks the news to the East Coast of the United States of the gold rush in California (although the rush started in January).

California Gold Rush, and Native Americans:

1813  Gervasio Antonio de Posadas joins Argentina‘s Second Triumvirate.

1812  War of 1812: American frigate USS Constitution defeats the British frigate HMS Guerriere off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada earning the nickname “Old Ironsides”.

War of 1812:

1772  Gustav III of Sweden stages a coup d’état, in which he assumes power and enacts a new constitution that divides power between the Riksdag and the King.

1759  Battle of Lagos Naval battle during the Seven Years’ War between Great Britain and France.

 

 

AUGUST 20

2002  A group of Iraqis opposed to the regime of Saddam Hussein take over the Iraqi Embassy in Berlin, Germany for five hours before releasing their hostages and surrendering.

1998  U.S. embassy bombings: The United States launches cruise missile attacks against alleged al-Qaeda camps in Afghanistan and a suspected chemical plant in Sudan in retaliation for the August 7 bombings of American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.

1998  The Supreme Court of Canada rules that Quebec cannot legally secede from Canada without the federal government’s approval.

Independent Movement of Quebec:

1997  Souhane massacre in Algeria; over 60 people are killed and 15 kidnapped.

1993  After rounds of secret negotiations in Norway, the Oslo Accords are signed, followed by a public ceremony in Washington, D.C. the following month.

Oslo Accords:

Israeli-Palestine Conflict:

Timeline of Israel-Palestine Conflict:

Israel:

Israel’s Nuclear Capability:

Foreign Relations of Israel:

Israel -US Relations:

Israel-Vatican Relations:

History of Israel:

Economy of Israel:

Zionism Movement:

Nahalal, and Jewish Settlement:

History of Zionism:

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO):

History of the PLO:

1991  Estonia, annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940, issues a decision on the re-establishment of independence on the basis of historical continuity of its pre-World War II statehood.

History of Estonia:

The Annexation of Estonia:

1991  Dissolution of the Soviet Union, August Coup: More than 100,000 people rally outside the Soviet Union’s parliament building protesting the coup aiming to depose President Mikhail Gorbachev.

1991 Soviet coup d’état attempt:

1988  The Troubles: Eight British soldiers are killed and 28 wounded when their bus is hit by an IRA roadside bomb in Ballygawley, County Tyrone.

The Troubles of 1988:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

IRA’s Terrorism:

History of the IRA:

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

1988  Iran–Iraq War: A ceasefire is agreed after almost eight years of war.

Iran-Iraq War:

1988  Peru becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.

1980  UN Security Council condemns (14-0, US abstains) Israeli declaration that all of Jersualem is its capital.

UN Security Council Resolution 478 (1980) of 20 August 1980:

Israel and Jerusalem:

Jerusalem as the Capital of Israel:

1977  Voyager Program: NASA launches the Voyager 2 spacecraft.

Voyager Program:

1975  Viking Program: NASA launches the Viking 1 planetary probe toward Mars.

Viking Program:

1972  USSR performs underground nuclear test at Western Kazakhstan.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1972:

Nuclear Tests at Semipalitinsk:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1968  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1968:

Semipalitinsk Nuclear Test Site:

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1968  Soviet Union-dominated Warsaw Pact troops invade Czechoslovakia, crushing the Prague Spring.

Prague Spring:

1962  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

Novaya Zemlya Test Site:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1962  The NS Savannah, the world’s first nuclear-powered civilian ship, embarks on its maiden voyage.

NS Savannah:

196Senegal breaks from the Mali Federation, declaring its independence.

Independence of Senegal:

History of Senegal:

Senegal:

Foreign Relations of Senegal:

Senegal and the United Nations:

Economy of Senegal:

1955  In Morocco, a force of Berbers from the Atlas Mountains region of Algeria raid two rural settlements and kill 77 French nationals.

1953  USSR publicly acknowledges hydrogen bomb test detonation.

Hydrogen Bomb on August 20, 1953:

1950  Korean War: United Nations repel an offensive by North Korean divisions attempting to cross the Naktong River and assault the city of Taegu.

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1944  World War II: The Battle of Romania begins with a major Soviet Union offensive.

1944  World War II: 168 captured allied airmen, including Phil Lamason, accused by the Gestapo of being “terror fliers”, arrive at Buchenwald concentration camp.

1940  World War II: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill makes the fourth of his famous wartime speeches, containing the line “Never was so much owed by so many to so few

Churchill’s Speech on 20 August 1940:

1940  In Mexico City, Mexico exiled Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky is fatally wounded with an ice axe by Ramón Mercader. He dies the next day.

Assassination of Leon Trotsky:

1914  World War I: German forces occupy Brussels.

1882  Tchaikovsky‘s 1812 Overture debuts in Moscow, Russia.

Tchaikovsky’s 1812 Overture:

1866  President Andrew Johnson formally declares the American Civil War over.

1858  Charles Darwin first publishes his theory of evolution through natural selection in The Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, alongside Alfred Russel Wallace‘s same theory.

 

 

AUSUST 21

2013 Hundreds of people are reported killed by chemical attacks in the Ghouta region of Syria.

Killing in Ghouta, Syria:

2001  The Red Cross announces that a famine is striking Tajikistan, and calls for international financial aid for Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

200NATO decides to send a peace-keeping force to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to implement the Operation Essential Harvest, officially launched on August 22, 2001, and effectively started on August 27, 2001.

Operation Essential Harvest:

NATO:

History of NATO:

Problems of NATO:

The United States and NATO:

1993  NASA loses contact with the Mars Observer spacecraft.

Mars:

Ancient Civilization on Mars? :

Nuclear War on Mars? :

1991  Coup attempt against Mikhail Gorbachev collapses.

1991 Soviet coup d’état attempt:

1991  Latvia declares renewal of its full independence after the occupation of Soviet Union.

History of Latvia:

Independence of Latvia in 1991:

Independence of a State in International Law:

1986  Carbon dioxide gas erupts from volcanic Lake Nyos in Cameroon, killing up to 1,800 people within a 20-kilometer range.

1983  Philippine opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. is assassinated at the Manila International Airport (now renamed Ninoy Aquino International Airport).

1982  Lebanese Civil War: The first troops of a multinational force lands in Beirut to oversee the Palestine Liberation Organization‘s withdrawal from Lebanon.

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO):

History of the PLO:

Lebanese Civil War in 1982:

Lebanese Civil War (Overview):

Special Tribunal for Lebanon:

Lebanon:

Foreign Relations of Lebanon:

History of Lebanon:

Economy of Lebanon:

1979  Soviet dancer Alexander Godunov defects to the United States.

1976  Operation Paul Bunyan at Panmunjom, South Korea.

1972  US orbiting astronomy observatory Copernicus launched.

1971  A bomb exploded in the Liberal Party campaign rally in Plaza Miranda, Manila, Philippines with several anti-Marcos political candidates injured.

1969  An Australian, Denis Michael Rohan, sets the Al-Aqsa Mosque on fire, a major catalyst of the formation of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

1968  James Anderson, Jr. posthumously receives the first Medal of Honor to be awarded to an African American U.S. Marine. James Anderson, Jr. posthumously receives the first Medal of Honor to be awarded to an African American U.S. Marine.

1968  Nicolae Ceaușescu, leader of Communist Romania, publicly condemns the Soviet led Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, encouraging the Romanian population to arm itself against possible Soviet reprisals.

1963  Xá Lợi Pagoda raids: The Army of the Republic of Vietnam Special Forces loyal to Ngo Dinh Nhu, brother of President Ngo Dinh Diem, vandalizes Buddhist pagodas across the country, arresting thousands and leaving an estimated hundreds dead.

1959  United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order proclaiming Hawaii the 50th state of the union. Hawaii’s admission is currently commemorated by Hawaii Admission Day

1957  The Soviet Union successfully conducts a long-range test flight of the R-7 Semyorka, the first intercontinental ballistic missile.

ICBM R-7:

1945  Physicist Harry K. Daghlian, Jr. is fatally irradiated in a criticality accident during an experiment with the Demon core at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

1944  World War II: Canadian and Polish units capture the strategically important town of Falaise, Calvados, France.

1944  Dumbarton Oaks Conference, prelude to the United Nations, begins.

Dumbarton Oaks in the History of the United Nations:

Birth of the United Nations (1) – Overview:

Birth of the United Nations (2) – Atlantic Charter of 1941:

Birth of the United Nations (3) – Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta:

Birth of the United Nations (4) – San Francisco Conference: April 26–June 26, 1945:

1942  World War II: The Guadalcanal Campaign: American forces defeat an attack by Imperial Japanese Army soldiers in the Battle of the Tenaru.

Battle of the Tenaru:

Battle of Guadalcanal (Overview):

1942  World War II: The flag of Nazi Germany is installed atop the Mount Elbrus, the highest peak of the Caucasus mountain range.

1918  World War I: The Second Battle of the Somme begins.

1914  World War I: The Battle of Charleroi, a successful German attack across the River Sambre which pre-empted a French offensive in the same area.

1911  The Mona Lisa is stolen by a Louvre employee.

1901 The International Secretariat of National Trade Union Centres is founded in Copenhagen.

1897  Oldsmobile, a brand of American automobiles, is founded.

Oldsmobile:

1888  The first successful adding machine in the United States is patented by William Seward Burroughs.

1883  An F5 tornado strikes Rochester, Minnesota, leading to the creation of the Mayo Clinic.

1879  The Virgin Mary, along with St. Joseph and St. John the Evangelist, reportedly appears at Knock Shrine in Knock, County Mayo, Ireland.

Apparitions at Knock Shrine:

1863  Lawrence, Kansas is destroyed by Confederate guerrillas Quantrill’s Raiders in the Lawrence Massacre.

1852  Tlingit Indians destroy Fort Selkirk, Yukon Territory.

1831  Nat Turner leads black slaves and free blacks in a rebellion.

Nat Turner and His Rebellion:

1821  Jarvis Island is discovered by the crew of the ship, Eliza Frances.

Jarvis Island:

1808  Battle of Vimeiro: British and Portuguese forces led by General Arthur Wellesley defeat French force under Major-General Jean-Andoche Junot near the village of Vimeiro, Portugal, the first Anglo-Portuguese victory of the Peninsular War.

1772  King Gustav III completes his coup d’état by adopting a new Constitution, ending half a century of parliamentary rule in Sweden and installing himself as an enlightened despot.

1770  James Cook formally claims eastern Australia for Great Britain, naming it New South Wales.

James Cook and Australia:

___________________________________

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

(Sources and references: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/august15   to_august_21; http://www.onthisday.com/events/august/15   to august/21;   http://www.brainyhistory.com/days/august_15.html.   to august_21.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

 

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 15 Aug 2016.

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One Response to “This Week in History”

  1. Great article , thank you for sharing the blog, well done.