This Week in History

HISTORY, 21 Aug 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

Aug 21-27, 2017


“Love yourself. It is important to stay positive because beauty comes from the inside out.”   – Jenn Proske



2013 Hundreds of people are reported killed by chemical attacks in the Ghouta region of Syria.

Killing in Ghouta, Syria:

2001  The Red Cross announces that a famine is striking Tajikistan, and calls for international financial aid for Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

200NATO decides to send a peace-keeping force to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to implement the Operation Essential Harvest, officially launched on August 22, 2001, and effectively started on August 27, 2001.

Operation Essential Harvest:


History of NATO:

Problems of NATO:

The United States and NATO:

1993  NASA loses contact with the Mars Observer spacecraft.


Ancient Civilization on Mars? :

Nuclear War on Mars? :

1991  Coup attempt against Mikhail Gorbachev collapses.

1991 Soviet coup d’état attempt:

1991  Latvia declares renewal of its full independence after the occupation of Soviet Union.

History of Latvia:

Independence of Latvia in 1991:

Independence of a State in International Law:

1986  Carbon dioxide gas erupts from volcanic Lake Nyos in Cameroon, killing up to 1,800 people within a 20-kilometer range.

1983  Philippine opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. is assassinated at the Manila International Airport (now renamed Ninoy Aquino International Airport).

1982  Lebanese Civil War: The first troops of a multinational force lands in Beirut to oversee the Palestine Liberation Organization‘s withdrawal from Lebanon.

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO):

History of the PLO:

Lebanese Civil War in 1982:

Lebanese Civil War (Overview):

Special Tribunal for Lebanon:


Foreign Relations of Lebanon:

History of Lebanon:

Economy of Lebanon:

1979  Soviet dancer Alexander Godunov defects to the United States.

1976  Operation Paul Bunyan at Panmunjom, South Korea.

1972  US orbiting astronomy observatory Copernicus launched.

1971  A bomb exploded in the Liberal Party campaign rally in Plaza Miranda, Manila, Philippines with several anti-Marcos political candidates injured.

1969  An Australian, Denis Michael Rohan, sets the Al-Aqsa Mosque on fire, a major catalyst of the formation of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

1968  James Anderson, Jr. posthumously receives the first Medal of Honor to be awarded to an African American U.S. Marine. James Anderson, Jr. posthumously receives the first Medal of Honor to be awarded to an African American U.S. Marine.

1968  Nicolae Ceaușescu, leader of Communist Romania, publicly condemns the Soviet led Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, encouraging the Romanian population to arm itself against possible Soviet reprisals.

1963  Xá Lợi Pagoda raids: The Army of the Republic of Vietnam Special Forces loyal to Ngo Dinh Nhu, brother of President Ngo Dinh Diem, vandalizes Buddhist pagodas across the country, arresting thousands and leaving an estimated hundreds dead.

1959  United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order proclaiming Hawaii the 50th state of the union. Hawaii’s admission is currently commemorated by Hawaii Admission Day

1957  The Soviet Union successfully conducts a long-range test flight of the R-7 Semyorka, the first intercontinental ballistic missile.


1945  Physicist Harry K. Daghlian, Jr. is fatally irradiated in a criticality accident during an experiment with the Demon core at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

1944  World War II: Canadian and Polish units capture the strategically important town of Falaise, Calvados, France.

1944  Dumbarton Oaks Conference, prelude to the United Nations, begins.

Dumbarton Oaks in the History of the United Nations:

Birth of the United Nations (1) – Overview:

Birth of the United Nations (2) – Atlantic Charter of 1941:

Birth of the United Nations (3) – Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta:

Birth of the United Nations (4) – San Francisco Conference: April 26–June 26, 1945:

1942  World War II: The Guadalcanal Campaign: American forces defeat an attack by Imperial Japanese Army soldiers in the Battle of the Tenaru.

Battle of the Tenaru:

Battle of Guadalcanal (Overview):

1942  World War II: The flag of Nazi Germany is installed atop the Mount Elbrus, the highest peak of the Caucasus mountain range.

1918  World War I: The Second Battle of the Somme begins.

1914  World War I: The Battle of Charleroi, a successful German attack across the River Sambre which pre-empted a French offensive in the same area.

1911  The Mona Lisa is stolen by a Louvre employee.

1901 The International Secretariat of National Trade Union Centres is founded in Copenhagen.

1897  Oldsmobile, a brand of American automobiles, is founded.


1888  The first successful adding machine in the United States is patented by William Seward Burroughs.

1883  An F5 tornado strikes Rochester, Minnesota, leading to the creation of the Mayo Clinic.

1879  The Virgin Mary, along with St. Joseph and St. John the Evangelist, reportedly appears at Knock Shrine in Knock, County Mayo, Ireland.

Apparitions at Knock Shrine:

1863  Lawrence, Kansas is destroyed by Confederate guerrillas Quantrill’s Raiders in the Lawrence Massacre.

1852  Tlingit Indians destroy Fort Selkirk, Yukon Territory.

1831  Nat Turner leads black slaves and free blacks in a rebellion.

Nat Turner and His Rebellion:

1821  Jarvis Island is discovered by the crew of the ship, Eliza Frances.

Jarvis Island:

1808  Battle of Vimeiro: British and Portuguese forces led by General Arthur Wellesley defeat French force under Major-General Jean-Andoche Junot near the village of Vimeiro, Portugal, the first Anglo-Portuguese victory of the Peninsular War.

1772  King Gustav III completes his coup d’état by adopting a new Constitution, ending half a century of parliamentary rule in Sweden and installing himself as an enlightened despot.

1770  James Cook formally claims eastern Australia for Great Britain, naming it New South Wales.

James Cook and Australia:



2012  Ethnic clashes over grazing rights for cattle in Kenya’s Tana River District result in more than 52 deaths.

2007  The Storm botnet, a botnet created by the Storm Worm, sends out a record 57 million e-mails in one day.

2006  Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise Flight 612 crashes near the Russian border over eastern Ukraine, killing all 170 people on board.

Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise Flight 612:

2004  Versions of The Scream and Madonna, two paintings by Edvard Munch, are stolen at gunpoint from a museum in Oslo, Norway.

1996  Bill Clinton signs welfare reform into law, representing major shift in US welfare policy

197The Sandinista National Liberation Front (FLSN) occupies national palace in Nicaragua.

Sandinista National Liberation Front (FLSN):

FLSN’s Occupation of the National Palace in August 22, 1978:

One Year Later: Nicaragua’s Revolution in 1979, Sandinista:

Somoza Family:

Politics of Nicaragua:

Iran-Contra Affair and Nicaragua:

History of Nicaragua:

Economy of Nicaragua:

1973  The Congress of Chile votes in favor of a resolution condemning President Salvador Allende‘s government and demands him to resign or else be unseated through force and new elections be called. The first demand is executed eighteen days later in a bloody coup d’etat, commencing 17 years of military rule.

1972  Rhodesia is expelled by the IOC for its racist policies.

Rhodesia and Racism:

IOC, Racial and Other Forms of Discriminations:

IOC Charter:

Sports and Racism:

Race and Anthropology:

Case Study: Apartheid of South Africa:

1971  J. Edgar Hoover and John Mitchell announce the arrest of 20 of the Camden 28.

1966  Labor movements NFWA and AWOC merge to become the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC), predecessor of the United Farm Workers.


1963  American Joe Walker in an X-15 test plane reaches an altitude of 106 km (66 mi).

Joe Walker:


1962  An attempt to assassinate French president Charles de Gaulle fails.

Assassination Attempt of Charles de Gaulle:

Charles de Gaulle:

196Ida Siekmann dies attempting to cross the Berlin Wall.

Berlin Wall:

Fall of the Belin Wall:

German Reunification:


History of Germany:

195The penal colony on Devil’s Island is permanently closed.

Devil’s Island:

1950  Althea Gibson becomes the first black competitor in international tennis.

1949  Queen Charlotte earthquake: Canada‘s largest earthquake since the 1700 Cascadia earthquake

1944  World War II: Holocaust of Kedros in Crete by German forces.

Holocaust of Kedros:

1944  World War II: Romania is captured by the Soviet Union.

1944  World War II: Brazil declares war on Germany and Italy.

194World War II: German troops reach Leningrad, leading to the siege of Leningrad.

Siege of Leningrad:

1932  The BBC first experiments with television broadcasting. (See also Timeline of the BBC.)

1922  Michael Collins, Commander-in-chief of the Irish Free State Army, is shot dead during an Anti-Treaty ambush at Béal na Bláth, County Cork, during the Irish Civil War.

From Irish Civil War to the Irish War of Independence:

Irish War of Independence:

History of Ireland:

191Korea is annexed by Japan with the signing of the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910, beginning a period of Japanese rule of Korea that lasted until the end of World War II.

Japan-Korea Treaty of 1910:

1902  Cadillac Motor Company is founded.


1864  Twelve nations sign the First Geneva Convention.

First Geneva Convention:

1849 The first air raid in history. Austria launches pilotless balloons against the city of Venice.

First Air Raid:

1831  Nat Turner’s slave rebellion commences just after midnight in Southampton County, Virginia, leading to the deaths of more than 50 whites and several hundred African Americans who are killed in retaliation for the uprising.

Nat Turner:

Slavery and Slave Rebellions in the United States:




2013  A riot at the Palmasola prison complex in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, kills 31 people.

2011  Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi is overthrown after the National Transitional Council forces take control of Bab al-Azizia compound during the 2011 Libyan civil war.

Muammar Gaddafi:

History of Libya:

History of Libya under Gaddafi:

Libya and Oil:

Libyan Civil War of 2011:

2011  A magnitude 5.8 (class: moderate) earthquake occurs in Virginia. Damage occurs to monuments and structures in Washington D.C. and the resulted damage is estimated at $200 million–$300 million USD.

2010  Manila hostage crisis, in which eight hostages were killed.

2007  The skeletal remains of Russia’s last royal family members Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia, and his sister Grand Duchess Anastasia are discovered near Yekaterinburg, Russia.

Discovery of the Bones of the Royal Family Members:

2006  Natascha Kampusch, who had been abducted at the age of ten, escapes from her captor Wolfgang Priklopil, after eight years of captivity.

Natascha Kampusch:

2000  Gulf Air Flight 072 crashes into the Persian Gulf near Manama, Bahrain, killing 143.

1996  Osama bin Laden issues message entitled ‘A declaration of war against the Americans occupying the land of the two holy places.’

Osama bin Laden’s Message:

1994  Eugene Bullard, the only black pilot in World War I, is posthumously commissioned as Second Lieutenant in the United States Air Force.

Afro-Americans and American Air Force:

1993  The Galileo spacecraft discovers a moon, later named Dactyl, around 243 Ida, the first known asteroid moon.

Galileo Space Craft:

1991  Tim Berners-Lee opens the WWW, World Wide Web to new users.

History of World Wide Web:

1990  West Germany and East Germany announce that they will reunite on October 3.

German Unification:

German Reunification:

Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany:

German Unification and the Unification Treaty:


Foreign Relations of Germany:

History of Germany:

History of German Democratic Republic (East Germany):

Economy of Germany:

1990  Armenia declares its independence from the Soviet Union.

Independence of Armenia in 1990:

1990  Saddam Hussein appears on Iraqi state television with a number of Western “guests” (actually hostages) to try to prevent the Gulf War.

1989  One thousand six hundred forty-five Australian domestic airline pilots resign after the airlines threaten to fire them and sue them over a dispute.

1989  Singing Revolution: Two million people from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania stand on the VilniusTallinn road, holding hands (Baltic Way).

Singing Revolution:

1985  Hans Tiedge, top counter-spy of West Germany, defects to East Germany.

1982  Bachir Gemayel is elected Lebanese President amidst the raging civil war.

198USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR’s Nuclear Tests at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1977  The Gossamer Condor wins the Kremer prize for human powered flight.

1975  USSR performs nuclear tests at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1975:

USSR Nuclear Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Test Site:

1973  A bank robbery gone wrong in Stockholm, Sweden, turns into a hostage crisis; over the next five days the hostages begin to sympathize with their captors, leading to the term “Stockholm syndrome“.

1970 Organized by Mexican American labor union leader César Chávez, the Salad Bowl strike, the largest farm worker strike in U.S. history, begins.

1966  Lunar Orbiter 1 takes the first photograph of Earth from orbit around the Moon.

1963  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1958  Chinese Civil War: The Second Taiwan Strait crisis begins with the People’s Liberation Army‘s bombardment of Quemoy.

Second Taiwan Strait Crisis:

1957  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

  • For some more pertinent information, see1963 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Site,” mentioned above.

1954  First flight of the C-130 Hercules transport aircraft.

1953  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Semipalitinsk, Kazakhstan, USSR.

USSR Nuclear Test in 1953:

Semipalitinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1948  World Council of Churches is formed.

World Council of Churches:

1946  Ordinance No. 46 of the British Military Government constitutes the German Länder (states) of Hanover and Schleswig-Holstein.

1945  Soviet–Japanese WarJoseph Stalin ordered conveying a Japanese army prisoner of war to the Soviet Union. (Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union)

Research: WWII Forced Labor and Compensation Cases relating to Japan:

Soviet-Japanese War:

Japanese Prisoners of War in the Soviet Union:

Prisoners of War (POW):

A Case Study: How Japanese Army Treated POWs (1) – Japan’s 731 Unit:

A Case Study: How Japanese Army Treated POWs (2) – Forced Labor for the Construction of the Burma Railway (a.k.a. Death Railway):

POWs in International Law:

1944  Freckleton Air Disaster – A United States Army Air Forces B-24 Liberator bomber crashes into a school in Freckleton, England killing 61 people.

1944  World War II: King Michael of Romania dismisses the pro-Nazi government of Marshal Antonescu, who is arrested. Romania switches sides from the Axis to the Allies.

1944  World War II: Marseille is liberated by the Allies.

1943  World War II: Kharkov is liberated as a result of the Battle of Kursk (aka “Operation Citadel” or “Operation Zitadelle”).

Battle of Kursk of 1943:

1942  World War II: Beginning of the Battle of Stalingrad.

Battle of Stalingrad of 1942:

1939  World War II: Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union sign a non-aggression treaty, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. In a secret addition to the pact, the Baltic states, Finland, Romania, and Poland are divided between the two nations.

Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact of 1939:

1929  Hebron Massacre during the 1929 Palestine riots: Arab attack on the Jewish community in Hebron in the British Mandate of Palestine, continuing until the next day, resulted in the death of 65-68 Jews and the remaining Jews being forced to leave the city.

Hebron Massacre of 1929:

1927  Italian Anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti are executed after a lengthy, controversial trial.

Sacco and Vanzetti:

1923  Captain Lowell Smith and Lieutenant John P. Richter performed the first mid-air refueling on De Havilland DH-4B, setting an endurance flight record of 37 hours.

1921  British airship R-38 experiences structural failure over Hull in England and crashes in the Humber estuary. Of her 49 British and American training crew, only four survive.

1914  World War I: Battle of Mons: The British Army begins withdrawal.

1914  World War I: Japan declares war on Germany and bombs Qingdao, China.

1896  Officially recognized date of the Cry of Pugad Lawin, the start of the Philippine Revolution is made in Pugad Lawin (Quezon City), in the province of Manila (actual date and location is disputed).

1866  Austro-Prussian War ends with the Treaty of Prague.

1864  The Union Navy captures Fort Morgan, Alabama, thus breaking Confederate dominance of all ports on the Gulf of Mexico except Galveston, Texas.

1839  The United Kingdom captures Hong Kong as a base as it prepares for war with Qing China. The ensuing 3-year conflict will later be known as the First Opium War.

1813  At the Battle of Grossbeeren, the Prussians under Von Bülow repulse the French army.

1799  Napoleon I of France leaves Egypt for France en route to seizing power.




2006  The International Astronomical Union (IAU) redefines the term “planet” such that Pluto is now considered a dwarf planet.

Pluto as a Dwarf Planet:

2004  Eighty-nine passengers die after two airliners explode after flying out of Domodedovo International Airport, near Moscow. The explosions are caused by suicide bombers (reportedly female) from the Russian Republic of Chechnya.

2001  Air Transat Flight 236 runs out of fuel over the Atlantic Ocean (en route to Lisbon from Toronto) and makes an emergency landing in the Azores.

1998  First radio-frequency identification (RFID) human implantation tested in the United Kingdom.

What Is RFID? :

RFID, Ethics, and Privacy/Human Rights:

1994  Initial accord between Israel and the PLO about partial self-rule of the Palestinians on the West Bank.

Partial Self-Rule: West Bank in 1994:

1991  Ukraine declares itself independent from the Soviet Union.

History of Ukraine:

Ukraine-Russian Relations:

Relations: Ukraine, the West and Russia:

1991  Mikhail Gorbachev resigns as head of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Mikhail Gorbachev:

1989  Tadeusz Mazowiecki is chosen as the first non-communist Prime Minister in Central and Eastern Europe.

1989  Colombian drug barons declare “total war” on the Colombian government.

1981  Mark David Chapman is sentenced to 20 years to life in prison for murdering John Lennon.

Mark David Chapman’s Murder of John Lennon:

1978  USSR performs underground nuclear test at Sakha, Russia.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1978:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1967  Led by Abbie Hoffman, the Youth International Party temporarily disrupts trading at the New York Stock Exchange by throwing dollar bills from the viewing gallery, causing trading to cease as brokers scramble to grab them.

1966  USSR launches Luna 11 for orbit around Moon.

Soviet Luna Program:

1963  Buddhist crisis: As a result of the Xá Lợi Pagoda raids, the US State Department cables the United States Embassy, Saigon to encourage Army of the Republic of Vietnam generals to launch a coup against President Ngo Dinh Diem if he did not remove his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu.

1962  US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Nevada Test Site.

Atmospheric Nuclear Testing at the Nevada Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1954  Getúlio Dornelles Vargas, president of Brazil, commits suicide and is succeeded by João Café Filho.

1954  The Communist Control Act goes into effect, outlawing the American Communist Party.

195Edith Sampson becomes the first black U.S. delegate to the United Nations.

1949  The treaty creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organization goes into effect.

What Is NATO? :

History of NATO:

Problems of NATO:

The United States and NATO:

1944  World War II: Allied troops begin the attack on Paris.

1942  World War II: The Battle of the Eastern Solomons. Japanese aircraft carrier Ryūjō is sunk and US carrier USS Enterprise heavily damaged.

1941  Adolf Hitler orders the cessation of Nazi Germany’s systematic T4 euthanasia program of the mentally ill and the handicapped due to protests, although killings continue for the remainder of the war.

193Spanish Civil War: Sovereign Council of Asturias and León is proclaimed in Gijón.

Sovereign Council of Asturias and León:

Spanish Civil War:

Timelines of the Spanish Civil War:

1937  Spanish Civil War: the Basque Army surrenders to the Italian Corpo Truppe Volontarie following the Santoña Agreement.

Santoña Agreement:

1936  The Australian Antarctic Territory is created.

The Australian Antarctic Territory:

Pertinent Legal Issues of the Australian Antarctic Territory

The Antarctic and International Law:


1932  Amelia Earhart becomes the first woman to fly across the United States non-stop (from Los Angeles to Newark, New Jersey).

1931  Resignation of the United Kingdom’s Second Labour Government. Formation of the UK National Government.

1931  France and the Soviet Union sign a neutrality/no attack treaty.

1929  Second day of two-day Hebron massacre during the 1929 Palestine riots: Arab attacks on the Jewish community in Hebron in the British Mandate of Palestine, result in the death of 65-68 Jews and the remaining Jews being forced to leave the city.

Hebron Massacre of 1929:

1914  World War I: The Battle of Cer ends as the first Allied victory in the war.

191World War I: German troops capture Namur.

190Workers start pouring concrete for the Panama Canal.

1898  Count Muravyov, Foreign Minister of Russia presents a rescript that convoked the First Hague Peace Conference.

The Hague Peace Conference of 1898:

1891  Thomas Edison patents the motion picture camera.

1875  Captain Matthew Webb became first person to swim the English Channel

1870  The Wolseley Expedition reaches Manitoba to end the Red River Rebellion.

1857  The Panic of 1857 begins, setting off one of the most severe economic crises in United States history.

1821  The Treaty of Córdoba is signed in Córdoba, now in Veracruz, Mexico, concluding the Mexican War of Independence from Spain.

1820  Constitutionalist insurrection at Oporto, Portugal.

1816  The Treaty of St. Louis is signed in St. Louis, Missouri.

1815  The modern Constitution of the Netherlands is signed.

1814  British troops invade Washington, D.C. and during the Burning of Washington the White House, the Capitol and many other buildings are set ablaze.

1690 Job Charnock of the East India Company establishes a factory in Calcutta, an event formerly considered the founding of the city (in 2003 the Calcutta High Court ruled that the city has no birthday).


2012  Voyager 1 spacecraft enters interstellar space becoming the first man-made object to do so.

Voyager 1:

2003  The Tli Cho land claims agreement is signed between the Dogrib First Nations and the Canadian federal government in Rae-Edzo (now called Behchoko).

1997  Egon Krenz, the former East German leader, is convicted of a shoot-to-kill policy at the Berlin Wall.

1991  Linus Torvalds announces the first version of what will become Linux.

1991  The Battle of Vukovar begins. An 87-day siege of a Croatian city by the Yugoslav People’s Army (JNA), supported by various Serbian paramilitary forces, between August–November, during the Croatian War of Independence

Vukovar: Battle and Massacre:

1991  Belarus gains its independence from the Soviet Union

Independence of Belarus:


Foreign Relations of Belarus:

History of Belarus:

Economy of Belarus:

1990  UN Security Council (Resolution 665 (1990)) authorizes military action against Iraq.

UN Security Council Resolution 665 of 1990:

1991 Gulf War and Its Timeline:

1989  Mayumi Moriyama becomes Japan‘s first female cabinet secretary.

1989  Voyager 2 spacecraft makes its closest approach to Neptune, the second to last planet in the Solar System at the time.

Voyager 2:

1984  USSR performs underground nuclear test at Khanti-Mansi, Russia.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1984:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1981  Voyager 2 spacecraft makes its closest approach to Saturn

1980  Zimbabwe joins the United Nations.


Zimbabwe and the United Nations:

History of Zimbabwe:

Economy of Zimbabwe:

1967  George Lincoln Rockwell is assassinated.

1966  Sayyid Qutb is executed in Egypt.

1962  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk , Kazakhstan, USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1962:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

USSR’s Nuclear Tests at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk:

1962  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Novaya Zemlya, Russia.

  • For some more information on this nuclear test, including USSR Nuclear Tests in 1962, USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests,  Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests,  and Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests, see1962  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk , Kazakhstan, USSR”, mentioned above.

Nuclear Tests at Novaya Zemlya, Russia (Overview):

1961  President Jânio Quadros of Brazil resigns after just seven months in power, initiating a political crisis that culminates in a military coup in 1964.

1950  President Harry Truman orders the U.S. Army to seize control of the nation’s railroads to avert a strike.

1948  The House Un-American Activities Committee holds first-ever televised congressional hearing: “Confrontation Day” between Whittaker Chambers and Alger Hiss.

1945  Ten days after World War II ends with Japan announcing its surrender, armed supporters of the Chinese Communist Party kill U.S. intelligence officer John Birch, regarded by some of the American right as the first victim of the Cold War.

1944  World War II: Paris is liberated by the Allies.

Liberation of Paris, 1944:

1942  World War II: second day of the Battle of the Eastern Solomons. A Japanese naval transport convoy headed towards Guadalcanal is turned-back by an Allied air attack, losing one destroyer and one transport sunk, and one light cruiser heavily damaged.

1942  World War II: Battle of Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea.

1939  The United Kingdom and Poland form a military alliance in which the UK promises to defend Poland in case of invasion by a foreign power.

1933  The Diexi earthquake strikes Mao County, Sichuan, China and kills 9,000 people.

1921  The first skirmishes of the Battle of Blair Mountain occur.

1920  Polish–Soviet War: Battle of Warsaw, which began on August 13, ends with the Red Army‘s defeat.

Battle of Warsaw:

Polish-Soviet War:

Relations between Poland and Russia:

History of Poland:


Foreign Relations of Poland:

Economy of Poland:

1916  The United States National Park Service is created.

1914  World War I: The library of the Catholic University of Leuven is deliberately destroyed by the German Army. Hundreds of thousands of irreplaceable volumes and Gothic and Renaissance manuscripts are lost.

1912  The Kuomintang, the Chinese nationalist party, is founded.

1898  Seven hundred Greek civilians, 17 British guards and the British Consul of Crete are killed by a Turkish mob in Heraklion, Greece.

1894  Kitasato Shibasaburō discovers the infectious agent of the bubonic plague and publishes his findings in The Lancet.

1883  France and Viet Nam sign the Treaty of Huế, recognizing a French protectorate over Annam and Tonkin.

1875  Captain Matthew Webb became the first person to swim across the English Channel, traveling from Dover, England, to Calais, France, in 22 hours.

1835  The New York Sun perpetrates the Great Moon Hoax.

1830  The Belgian Revolution begins.

Belgian Revolution:

Timelines of the Belgian Revolution:

1825  Uruguay declares its independence from Brazil.

Independence of Uruguay:

History and Culture of Uruguay:

1768  James Cook begins his first voyage.

1758  Seven Years’ War: Frederick II of Prussia defeats the Russian army at the Battle of Zorndorf.

Battle of Zorndorf:

Seven Years’ War:

1630  Portuguese forces are defeated by the Kingdom of Kandy at the Battle of Randeniwela in Sri Lanka.

1609  Galileo Galilei demonstrates his first telescope to Venetian lawmakers.

Galileo and Telescope:

1580  Battle of Alcântara. Spain defeats Portugal.




2013  Nationwide protests are held across the Philippines over the Priority Development Assistance Fund scam.

2002  Earth Summit 2002 begins in Johannesburg, South Africa.

1999  Russia begins the Second Chechen War in response to the Invasion of Dagestan by the Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade.

Invasion of Dagestan:

Second Chechen War:

First Chechen War:

Chechen Wars:

1997  Beni Ali massacre in Algeria where 60 to 100 people were killed.

Beni Ali Massacre of 1997:

1980  John Birges plants a bomb at Harvey’s Resort Hotel in Stateline, Nevada, US.

1978  Sigmund Jähn becomes first German cosmonaut, on board Soyuz 31.

197Papal conclave: Albino Luciani is elected as Pope John Paul I.

Pope John Paul I (Albino Luciani):

“Death” of Pope John Paul I:

1977  The Charter of the French Language is adopted by the National Assembly of Quebec

French as the Official Language of Quebec:

Quebec and the French Language:

1972  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1972:

USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Test Site at Semipalitinsk, Kazakhstan:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1970  The then-new feminist movement, led by Betty Friedan, leads a nationwide Women’s Strike for Equality.

Betty Friedan:

Women’s Strike for Equality of 1970:

Gender Inequality/Equality in Employment in the United States:

Issues relating to Gender Inequality/Equality and More:

Women’s Suffrage (1) – Its History:

Women’s Suffrage (2) – Case of the United States:

History of Women’s Suffrage (3) – Movements in the United States:

Women’s Suffrage (4) – The Nineteenth Amendment and Women’s Suffrage of the United States:

Women’s Suffrage (5) – League of Women Voters:

Women’s Rights in General:


History of Feminism:

Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women:

UN and Women:

Gender Equality in Education:

1966  The Namibian War of Independence starts with the battle at Omugulugwombashe.

Namibian War of Independence:

1957  USSR announces successful test of intercontinental ballistic missile.

USSR’s Intercontinental Ballistic Missile:

1944  World War II: Charles de Gaulle enters Paris.

1942  The Holocaust in Chortkiav, western Ukraine: At 2.30 am the German Schutzpolizei starts driving Jews out of their houses, divides them into groups of 120, packs them in freight cars and deports 2000 to Bełżec extermination camp. Five hundred of the sick and children are murdered on the spot.

The Holocaust in Chortkiav:

Holocaust in Ukraine:

History of Ukraine:

1940  Chad becomes the first French colony to join the Allies under the administration of Félix Éboué, France’s first black colonial governor.

History of Chad:

1920  The 19th amendment to United States Constitution takes effect, giving women the right to vote.

1914  World War I: During the retreat from Mons, the British II Corps commanded by General Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien fought a vigorous and successful defensive action at Le Cateau.

1914  World War I: The German colony of Togoland surrenders to French and British forces after a 20 day campaign.

1914  In Brazil, Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras is founded.

1883  The 1883 eruption of Krakatoa begins its final, paroxysmal, stage.

1821  The University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, is officially opened.

1814  Chilean War of Independence: Infighting between the rebel forces of José Miguel Carrera and Bernardo O’Higgins erupts in the Battle of Las Tres Acequias.

1813  War of the Sixth Coalition: An impromptu battle takes place when French and Prussian-Russian forces accidentally run into each other near Liegnitz, Prussia (now Legnica, Poland).

1810  The former viceroy Santiago de Liniers of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata is executed after the defeat of his counter-revolution.

1791  John Fitch is granted a United States patent for the steamboat.

1789  The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen is approved by the National Constituent Assembly of France.

1778  The first recorded ascent of Triglav, the highest mountain in Slovenia.

1768  Captain James Cook sets sail from England on board HMS Endeavour.

1498  Michelangelo is commissioned to carve the Pietà.




2013  The riots between two religious communities started at Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Muzaffarnagar Riots of 2013:

2009  Internal conflict in Burma: The Burmese military junta and ethnic armies begin three days of violent clashes in the Kokang Special Region.

Conflict in the Kokang Special Region:

2003  The first six-party talks, involving South and North Korea, the United States, China, Japan and Russia, convene to find a peaceful resolution to the security concerns as a result of the North Korean nuclear weapons program.

Six Party Talk:

2003  Mars makes its closest approach to Earth in nearly 60,000 years, passing 34,646,418 miles (55,758,005 km) distant.

Closest Approach of Mars to the Earth in 2003:

1993  The Rainbow Bridge, connecting Tokyo’s Shibaura and the island of Odaiba, is completed.

199Moldova declares independence from the USSR.

History of Moldova:

Independence of Moldova:                        

1991  The European Community recognizes the independence of the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

History and Social Issues of Estonia:

Independence of Estonia:

History and Social Issues of Latvia:

Independence of Latvia:

History and Social Issues of Lithuania:

Independence of Lithuania

Russia and the Baltic States:

1985  The Nigerian government is peacefully overthrown by Army Chief of Staff Major General Ibrahim Babangida.

Coup of Nigeria by Ibrahim Babangida of 27 August 1985:

Ibrahim Babangida:


History of Nigeria:

Foreign Relations of Nigeria:

Nigeria and the United Nations:

Economy of Nigeria:

1982  Turkish military diplomat Colonel Atilla Altıkat is shot and killed in Ottawa, Canada’s capital city. Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide claim responsibility, saying they are avenging the massacre of 1.5 million Armenians in the 1915 Armenian Genocide.

The Armenian Genocide of 1915:

Why Does Turkey Deny the Armenian Genocide? :

1979  A Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb kills British retired admiral Lord Mountbatten and three others while they are boating on holiday in Sligo, Republic of Ireland. Shortly after, 18 British Army soldiers are killed in an ambush near Warrenpoint, Northern Ireland.

1975  The Governor of Portuguese Timor abandons its capital, Dili, and flees to Atauro Island, leaving control to a rebel group.

Timor-Leste (East Timor):

Timor-Leste, and the Vatican:

1971  An attempted coup d’état fails in the African nation of Chad. The Government of Chad accuses Egypt of playing a role in the attempt and breaks off diplomatic relations.

Foreign Relations of Chad:

Foreign Relations of Egypt:

1964  South Vietnamese junta leader Nguyễn Khánh enters into a triumvirate power-sharing arrangement with rival generals Trần Thiện Khiêm and Dương Văn Minh, who had both been involved in plots to unseat Khánh.

1962  The Mariner 2 unmanned space mission is launched to Venus by NASA.

1957  Malaysia’s constitution comes into force.

Constitution of Malaysia 1957:

1943  World War II: Japanese forces evacuate New Georgia Island in the Pacific Theater of Operations during World War II.

1939  First flight of the turbojet-powered Heinkel He 178, the world’s first jet aircraft.

1933  The first Afrikaans Bible is introduced during a Bible Festival in Bloemfontein.

1928  The Kellogg–Briand Pact outlawing war is signed by the first fifteen nations to do so. Ultimately sixty-one nations will sign it.

The Kellogg-Briand Pact:

“Kellogg-Briand Pact” and “Article 9 (Renunciation of War) of the Constitution of Japan”:

Frank B. Kellogg, and Aristide Briand:

Bibliography on the Kellogg-Briand Pact:

1927  Five Canadian women file a petition to the Supreme Court of Canada, asking, “Does the word ‘Persons’ in Section 24 of the British North America Act, 1867, include female persons?”

1922  Greco-Turkish War: The Turkish army takes the Aegean city of Afyonkarahisar from the Kingdom of Greece.

Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922:

History of Modern Greece:

History of the Ottoman Empire:

1921  The British install the son of Sharif Hussein bin Ali (leader of the Arab Revolt of 1916 against the Ottoman Empire) as King Faisal I of Iraq.

1918  Mexican Revolution: Battle of Ambos Nogales: U.S. Army forces skirmish against Mexican Carrancistas and their German advisors in the only battle of World War I fought on American soil.

1916  The Kingdom of Romania declares war on Austria-Hungary, entering World War I as one of the Allied nations.

1914  Battle of Étreux: A British rearguard action by the Royal Munster Fusiliers during the Great Retreat.

1896  Anglo-Zanzibar War: The shortest war in world history (09:00 to 09:45), between the United Kingdom and Zanzibar.

1859  Petroleum is discovered in Titusville, Pennsylvania leading to the world’s first commercially successful oil well.

1832 Black Hawk, leader of the Sauk tribe of Native Americans, surrenders to U.S. authorities, ending the Black Hawk War.

Black Hawk War:

Wars of Native People of North America:

Native People of America (a.k.a. American Indians):

History of Native People of America:

Independence of Uruguay:

1813  French Emperor Napoleon I defeats a larger force of Austrians, Russians, and Prussians at the Battle of Dresden.

1810  Napoleonic Wars: The French Navy defeats the British Royal Navy, preventing them from taking the harbour of Grand Port on Île de France.

1798  Wolfe Tone‘s United Irish and French forces clash with the British Army in the Battle of Castlebar, part of the Irish Rebellion of 1798, resulting in the creation of the French puppet Republic of Connacht.

1793  French Revolutionary Wars: The city of Toulon revolts against the French Republic and admits the British and Spanish fleets to seize its port, leading to the Siege of Toulon by French Revolutionary forces.

1776  Battle of Long Island: In what is now Brooklyn, New York, British forces under General William Howe defeat Americans under General George Washington.

1689  The Treaty of Nerchinsk is signed by Russia and the Qing Empire (Julian calendar).


 (Sources and references:   to_august_27 ;   to august/27;  to august_27.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 21 Aug 2017.

Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: This Week in History, is included. Thank you.

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