This Week in History

HISTORY, 11 September 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

Sep 11–17, 2017

QUOTE OF THE WEEK:

“The value of old age depends upon the person who reaches it. To some men of early performance it is useless. To others, who are late to develop, it just enables them to finish the job.”  –  Thomas Hardy

 

SEPTEMBER 11

2013  A 400 km long human chain called Catalan Way is organized by the Assemblea Nacional Catalana for the independence of Catalonia

2012  The U.S. embassy in Benghazi, Libya is attacked, resulting in four deaths.

2007  Russia tests the largest conventional weapon ever, the Father of All Bombs.

2001  September 11, attacks: Two allegedly hijacked aircraft crash into the World Trade Center in New York City, while a third smashes into The Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, and a fourth into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, in a series of coordinated suicide attacks by reportedly 19 members of al-Qaeda. In total 2,996 people are killed.

9/11 Official Story:

“9/11 Truth Movement”:

Counter-“9/11 Truth Movement”:

9/11 Various Aspects:

Bush Family, CIA, and Osama bin Laden:

Osama bin Laden, 9/11, and Iraq:

Al-Qaeda:

YouTube Videos on 9/11:

“Illuminati and 9/11” or Only Some Variations of the Conspiracy Theory? :

A Few Books, Among Many Others, relating to 9/11:

1997  Fourteen Estonian soldiers die in the Kurkse tragedy, drowning in the Baltic Sea.

1997  After a nationwide referendum, Scotland votes to establish a devolved parliament within the United Kingdom.

1997  NASA‘s Mars Global Surveyor reaches Mars.

1989  Hungary announces that the East German refugees who had been housed in temporary camps were free to leave for West Germany.

1988  The St. Jean Bosco massacre takes place in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

1986  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

1985  Pete Rose breaks Ty Cobb‘s baseball record for most career hits with his 4,192nd hit.

1983  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

198The international forces that were guaranteeing the safety of Palestinian refugees following Israel‘s 1982 Invasion of Lebanon leave Beirut. Five days later [i.e. five days later = the massacre was carried out between September 16 and 18, 1982], several thousand refugees are massacred in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps.

Massacre at the Sabra and Shatila Refugee Camps, September 1982:

1980  Voters approve a new Constitution of Chile, later amended after the departure of president Pinochet.

1978  Janet Parker is the last person to die of smallpox, in a laboratory-associated outbreak.

197A group of Croatian nationalists plant a bomb in a coin locker at Grand Central Terminal. After stating political demands, they reveal the location and provided instructions for disarming the bomb. The disarming operation are not executed properly and the bomb explodes, killing one NYPD bomb squad specialist.

Croatian Nationalists and the Croatian Independence Movement:

Background: Croatia, Nationalism, and the Independence Movement:

Background Direct or Indirect: Independent State of Croatia (NDH) in World War II:

Background Direct or Indirect: Jasenovac Concentration Camp:

Background Direct or Indirect: Bleiburg Massacre:

1973  A coup in Chile headed by General Augusto Pinochet topples the democratically elected president Salvador Allende. Pinochet exercises dictatorial power until ousted in a referendum in 1988, staying in power until 1990.

1971  The Egyptian Constitution becomes official.

1970  The Dawson’s Field hijackers release 88 of their hostages. The remaining hostages, mostly Jews and Israeli citizens, are held until September 25.

1969  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1969:

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1968  The International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) was found.

1965  Indo-Pakistani War: The Indian Army captures the town of Burki, just southeast of Lahore.

1945  World War II: Australian 9th Division forces liberate the Japanese-run Batu Lintang camp, a POW and civilian internment camp on the island of Borneo.

1944  World War II: RAF bombing raid on Darmstadt and the following firestorm kill 11,500.

1944  World War II: The first Allied troops of the U.S. Army cross the western border of Germany.

1943  World War II: Start of the liquidation of the Ghettos in Minsk and Lida by the Nazis.

1943  World War II: German troops occupy Corsica and KosovoMetohija.

1941  Charles Lindbergh’s Des Moines Speech accusing the British, Jews and the Roosevelt administration of pressing for war with Germany.

1941  Ground is broken for the construction of The Pentagon.

1940  George Stibitz performs the first remote operation of a computer.

1936  World War II: Canada declares war on Germany, the country’s first independent declaration of war

1922  The Treaty of Kars is ratified in Yerevan, Armenia.

1921  Nahalal, the first moshav in Palestine, is settled as part of a Zionist plan to colonize Palestine and creating a Jewish state, later to be Israel.

Nahalal, and Jewish Settlement:

Zionism Movement:

History of Zionism:

1919  US Marines invade Honduras.

Honduras:

History of Honduras:

US Invasion of Honduras and of Other Countries:

Honduras – United States Relations:

1914  Australia invades New Britain, defeating a German contingent at the Battle of Bita Paka.

1897  After months of pursuit, generals of Menelik II of Ethiopia capture Gaki Sherocho, the last king of Kaffa, bringing an end to that ancient kingdom.

Kingdom of Kaffa:

History of the Kingdom of Kaffa:

1893  Parliament of the World’s Religions opens in Chicago, where Swami Vivekananda delivers his speech on fanaticism, tolerance and the truth inherent in all religions.

Swami Vivekananda:

Swami Vivekananda’s Speech at Chicago, September 11, 1893:

1857  The Mountain Meadows massacre: Mormon settlers and Paiutes massacre 120 pioneers at Mountain Meadows, Utah.

1852  The State of Buenos Aires secedes from the Argentine Federal government, rejoining on September 17, 1861. Several places are named Once de Septiembre after this event.

1851  Christiana Resistance: Escaped slaves stand against their former owner in armed resistance in Christiana, Pennsylvania, creating a rallying cry for the abolitionist movement.

1830  Anti-Masonic Party convention; one of the first American political party conventions.

1829  Surrender of the expedition led by Isidro Barradas at Tampico, sent by the Spanish crown in order to retake Mexico. This was the consummation of Mexico’s campaign for independence.

1803  Battle of Delhi, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, between British troops under General Lake, and Marathas of Scindia‘s army under General Louis Bourquin.

1802  France annexes the Kingdom of Piedmont.

1786  The beginning of the Annapolis Convention.

1776  British–American peace conference on Staten Island fails to stop nascent American Revolutionary War.

1758  Battle of Saint Cast: France repels British invasion during the Seven Years’ War.

1714  Siege of Barcelona: Barcelona, capital city of Catalonia, surrenders to Spanish and French Bourbon armies in the War of the Spanish Succession.

1709  Battle of Malplaquet: Great Britain, Netherlands and Austria fight against France.

1708  Charles XII of Sweden stops his march to conquer Moscow outside Smolensk, marking the turning point in the Great Northern War. The army is defeated nine months later in the Battle of Poltava, and the Swedish Empire ceases to be a major power.

1697  Battle of Zenta.

 

 

 

SEPTEMBER 12

2011  The 9/11 Memorial Museum in New York City opens to the public.

2007  Former Philippine President Joseph Estrada is convicted of the crime of plunder.

2003  Iraq War: In Fallujah, U.S. forces mistakenly shoot and kill eight Iraqi police officers.

Timelines of the Iraq War:

2003  The United Nations lifts sanctions against Libya after that country agreed to accept responsibility and recompense the families of victims in the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103.

1999  Indonesia announces it will allow international peace-keepers into East Timor.

International Peacekeeping Force for East Timor:

1999 East Timor Crisis:

East Timor:

History of East Timor:

Annex of East Timor of 1976 and Its Background (Overview):

Indonesian Invasion of East Timor on December 07, 1975:

US Approval of Indonesia’s Invasion of East Timor in 1975:

Behind the Invasion: Australia’s Tacit Approval and the UK’s Support:

1992  Abimael Guzmán, leader of the Shining Path, is captured by Peruvian special forces; shortly thereafter the rest of Shining Path‘s leadership fell as well.

1992  NASA launches Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-47 which marked the 50th shuttle mission. On board are Mae Carol Jemison, the first African-American woman in space, Mamoru Mohri, the first Japanese citizen to fly in a US spaceship, and Mark Lee and Jan Davis, the first married couple in space.

1990  The two German states and the Four Powers sign the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in Moscow, paving the way for German reunification.

Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany:

German Unification and the Unification Treaty:

German Reunification:

Germany:

History of Germany:

1988  Hurricane Gilbert devastates Jamaica; it turns towards Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula 2 days later, causing an estimated $5 billion in damage.

1983  The USSR vetoes a United Nations Security Council Resolution deploring the Soviet shooting down of a Korean civilian jetliner on September 1.

1983  A Wells Fargo depot in West Hartford, Connecticut, United States, is robbed of approximately US$7 million by Los Macheteros.

1980  Military coup in Turkey.

Military Coup in Turkey of 1980:

1979  Indonesia is hit with an earthquake that measures 8.1 on the Richter scale.

1977  South African anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko dies in police custody.

Apartheid in South Africa (Overview):

Steve Biko:

History of Apartheid (South Africa):

1974  Juventude Africana Amílcar Cabral is founded in Guinea-Bissau.

1974  Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, ‘Messiah‘ of the Rastafari movement, is deposed following a military coup by the Derg, ending a reign of 58 years.

1973  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1973:

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1970  Dawson’s Field hijackings: Palestinian terrorists blow up three hijacked airliners in Jordan, continuing to hold the passengers hostage in various undisclosed locations in Amman.

1966  Gemini 11, the penultimate mission of NASA’s Gemini program, and the current human altitude record holder (except for the Apollo lunar missions)

1964  Canyonlands National Park is designated as a National Park.

1961  The African and Malagasy Union is founded.

1961  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1961:

  • 1961 Soviet nuclear tests – Wikipedia
  • For some more pertinent information on this nuclear tests at Novaya Zemlya, see1973  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Novaya Zemlya USSR,” mentioned above.

195The Soviet Union launches a large rocket, Lunik II, at the moon.

1959  Premiere of Bonanza, the first regularly scheduled TV program presented in color.

1958  US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Nevada Test Site.

Atmospheric Nuclear Testing at the Nevada Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1958  Jack Kilby demonstrates the first integrated circuit.

1953  U.S. Senator and future President John Fitzgerald Kennedy marries Jacqueline Lee Bouvier at St. Mary’s Church in Newport, Rhode Island.

1952  Strange occurrences, including a monster sighting, take place in Flatwoods, West Virginia.

194Invasion of the State of Hyderabad by the Indian Army on the day after the Pakistani leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah‘s death.

194World War II: The liberation of Serbia from Nazi Germany continues. Bajina Bašta in western Serbia is among those liberated cities. Near Trier, American troops enter Germany for the first time.

1943  World War II: Benito Mussolini, dictator of Italy, is rescued from house arrest on the Gran Sasso in Abruzzi, by German commando forces led by Otto Skorzeny.

Benito Mussolini:

Mussolini’s Doctrine:

Timeline – Mussolini:

1942  World War II: First day of the Battle of Edson’s Ridge during the Guadalcanal Campaign. U.S. Marines protecting Henderson Field on Guadalcanal are attacked by Imperial Japanese Army forces.

1942  World War II: RMS Laconia, carrying civilians, Allied soldiers and Italian POWs is torpedoed off the coast of West Africa and sinks with a heavy loss of life.

1940  An explosion at the Hercules Powder Company plant in Kenvil, New Jersey kills 51 people and injures over 200.

1940  Cave paintings are discovered in Lascaux, France.

1938  Adolf Hitler demands autonomy and self-determination for the Germans of the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia.

Adolf Hitler:

History of Nazi Germany:

History of Germany:

1933  Leó Szilárd, waiting for a red light on Southampton Row in Bloomsbury, conceives the idea of the nuclear chain reaction.

Nuclear Chain Reaction:

Leó Szilárd:

1923  Southern Rhodesia, today called Zimbabwe, is annexed by the United Kingdom.

Zimbabwe-UK Relations:

Zimbabwe:

History of Zimbabwe:

Economy of Zimbabwe:

1919  Adolf Hitler joins the German Workers’ Party (later the Nazi Party).

Adolf Hitler:

History of Nazi Germany:

History of Germany:

1897  Tirah Campaign: Battle of Saragarhi.

1890  Salisbury, Rhodesia, is founded.

1848  Switzerland becomes a Federal state.

Switzerland Federal System:

 

 

SEPTEMBER 13

2013  Taliban insurgents attack the United States consulate in Herat, Afghanistan, with two members of the Afghan National Police reported dead and about 20 civilians injured.

Taliban Attack on US Consulate, September 2013:

Taliban:

History of Taliban:

Is the Taliban a Terrorist Organization? :

Afghanistan:

US-Afghanistan Relations:

Foreign Relations of Afghanistan:

Afghanistan and the United Nations:

History of Afghanistan:

Economy of Afghanistan:

2008  Delhi, India, is hit by a series of bomb blasts, resulting in 30 deaths and 130 injuries.

2007  The Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples is adopted by the United Nations General Assembly.

Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples:

2001  Civilian aircraft traffic resumes in the United States after the September 11 attacks.

1994  Ulysses probe passes the Sun’s south pole.

1993  Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin shakes hands with Palestine Liberation Organization chairman Yasser Arafat at the White House after signing the Oslo Accords granting limited Palestinian autonomy.

1989  Largest anti-Apartheid march in South Africa, led by Desmond Tutu.

Desmond Tutu:

1989 Peace March against Apartheid:

History of Apartheid (South Africa):

1988  Hurricane Gilbert is the strongest recorded hurricane in the Western Hemisphere, later replaced by Hurricane Wilma in 2005 (based on barometric pressure).

1987  Goiânia accident: A radioactive object is stolen from an abandoned hospital in Goiânia, Brazil, contaminating many people in the following weeks and causing some to die from radiation poisoning.

1985  Super Mario Bros. is released in Japan for the NES, which starts the Super Mario series of platforming games.

198USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1981:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1979  South Africa grants independence to the “homeland” of Venda (not recognized outside South Africa).

South Africa:

History of South Africa:

Venda, Its People, Culture, and History:

1974  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1974:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1971  Chairman Mao Zedong‘s second in command and successor Marshal Lin Biao flees the People’s Republic of China after the failure of an alleged coup. His plane crashes in Mongolia, killing all aboard.

Lin Biao:

1968  Albania leaves the Warsaw Pact.

Alania and the Warsaw Pact:

1964  South Vietnamese Generals Lâm Văn Phát and Dương Văn Đức fail in a coup attempt against General Nguyễn Khánh.

Failed Coup Attempt in September, 1964:

Vietnam War in 1964:

Viet Nam War and Some Pertinent Events:

1963  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1961  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1961:

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

1961  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

  • For the atmospheric nuclear tests of the USSR, see “1961 USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR”, mentioned above.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1961:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1956  The IBM 305 RAMAC is introduced, the first commercial computer to use disk storage.

1956  The dike around the Dutch polder East Flevoland is closed.

1953  Nikita Khrushchev is appointed General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Nikita Khrushchev:

Communist Party of the Soviet Union:

1948  Margaret Chase Smith is elected senator, and becomes the first woman to serve in both the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate.

1948  Deputy Primer Minister of India Vallabhbhai Patel ordered the Army to move into the Hyderabad to integrate it with Indian Union.

1943  The Municipal Theatre of Corfu is destroyed during an aerial bombardment by Luftwaffe.

1942  World War II: Second day of the Battle of Edson’s Ridge in the Guadalcanal Campaign. U.S. Marines successfully defeated attacks by the Imperial Japanese Army with heavy losses for the Japanese forces.

1933  Elizabeth McCombs becomes the first woman elected to the New Zealand Parliament.

1923  Following a military coup in Spain, Miguel Primo de Rivera takes over, setting up a dictatorship.

Military Coup of 1923 and the Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera:

1922  The final act of the Greco-Turkish War, the Great Fire of Smyrna, commences.

  • Also see the date of “SEPTEMBER 7, 1922 In Aydın, Turkey, independence of Aydın, from Greek occupation.”

Greco-Turkish War:

Great Fire of Smyrna:

1914  World War I: The Battle of Aisne begins between Germany and France.

1914  World War I: South African troops open hostilities in German south-west Africa (Namibia) with an assault on the Ramansdrift police station.

1906  First flight of a fixed-wing aircraft in Europe.

1900  Filipino resistance fighters defeat a small American column in the Battle of Pulang Lupa, during the Philippine–American War.

Battle of Pulang Lupa:

Philippine-American War:

1899  Mackinder, Ollier and Brocherel make the first ascent of Batian (5,199 m – 17,058 ft), the highest peak of Mount Kenya.

1882  Anglo-Egyptian War: The Battle of Tel el-Kebir is fought.

Battle of Tel el-Kebir:

Anglo-Egyptian War of 1882:

1847  Mexican–American War: Six teenage military cadets known as Niños Héroes die defending Chapultepec Castle in the Battle of Chapultepec. American troops under General Winfield Scott capture Mexico City in the Mexican–American War.

Battle of Chapultepec:

Mexican-American War:

Timelines of the Mexican-American War:

1843  The Greek Army rebels (OS date: September 3) against the autocratic rule of king Otto of Greece, demanding the granting of a constitution.

 

 

SEPTEMBER 14

2007  Late-2000s financial crisis: The Northern Rock bank experiences the first bank run in the United Kingdom in 150 years.

Late-2000s Financial Crisis:

2003  In a referendum, Estonia approves joining the European Union.

Estonia:

Estonia and the European Union:

History of Estonia:

Foreign Relations of Estonia:

2001  Historic National Prayer Service held at Washington National Cathedral for victims of the September 11 attacks. A similar service is held in Canada on Parliament Hill, the largest vigil ever held in the nation’s capital.

2000  Microsoft releases Windows ME.

1999  Kiribati, Nauru and Tonga join the United Nations.

Kiribati:

History of Kiribati:

Kiribati and the United Nations:

Nauru:

History of Nauru:

Nauru and the United Nations:

Tonga:

History of Tonga:

Tonga and the United Nations:

1998  Telecommunications companies MCI Communications and WorldCom complete their $37 billion merger to form MCI WorldCom.

1992  The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina declares the breakaway Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia to be illegal.

1982  President-elect of Lebanon, Bachir Gemayel, is assassinated.

1979  Afghan President Nur Muhammad Taraki is assassinated upon the order of Hafizullah Amin, who becomes the new president.

1975  The first American saint, Elizabeth Ann Seton, is canonized by Pope Paul VI.

1960  Congo Crisis: With CIA help, Mobutu Sese Seko seizes power in a military coup, suspending parliament and the constitution.

Congo Crisis of 1960:

1960  The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is founded.

1959  The Soviet probe Luna 2 crashes onto the Moon, becoming the first man-made object to reach it.

1958  The first two German post-war rockets, designed by the German engineer Ernst Mohr, reach the upper atmosphere.

1954  In a top secret nuclear test, a Soviet Tu-4 bomber drops a 40 kiloton atomic weapon just north of Totskoye village.

Nuclear Tests in Totskoye in 1954:      

1944  World War II: Maastricht becomes the first Dutch city to be liberated by allied forces.

1943  World War II: The Wehrmacht starts a three-day retaliatory operation targeting several Greek villages in Viannos, whose death toll would exceeded 500 persons.

1940  Ip massacre: The Hungarian Army, supported by local Hungarians, kill 158 Romanian civilians in Ip, Sălaj, a village in Northern Transylvania, an act of ethnic cleansing.

Ip Massacre:

1939  World War II: The Estonian military boards the Polish submarine ORP Orzeł in Tallinn, sparking a diplomatic incident that the Soviet Union will later use to justify the annexation of Estonia.

1917  Russia is officially proclaimed a republic.

1914  HMAS AE1, the Royal Australian Navy‘s first submarine, was lost at sea with all hands near East New Britain, Papua New Guinea.

1901  US President William McKinley dies after an assassination attempt on September 6, and is succeeded by Vice President Theodore Roosevelt.

1847  Mexican–American War: Winfield Scott captures Mexico City.

1846  Jang Bahadur and his brothers massacre about 40 members of the Nepalese palace court.

1829  The Ottoman Empire signs the Treaty of Adrianople with Russia, thus ending the Russo-Turkish War.

1812  Napoleonic Wars: The French Grande Armée enters Moscow. The Fire of Moscow begins as soon as Russian troops leave the city.

1808  Finnish War: Russians defeat the Swedes in the bloody Battle of Oravais.

1791  The Papal States lose Avignon to the French Empire.

1763  Seneca warriors defeat British forces at the Battle of Devil’s Hole during Pontiac’s War.

1752  The British Empire adopts the Gregorian calendar, skipping eleven days (the previous day was September 2).

 

 

SETPEMBER 15

2008  Lehman Brothers files for Chapter 1 bankruptcy, the largest bankruptcy filing in U.S. history.

Bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers:

2000  The Games of the XXVII Olympiad begin in Sydney, Australia.

1998  With the landmark merger of WorldCom and MCI Communications completed the day prior, the new MCI WorldCom opens its doors for business.

1993  Liechtenstein Prince Hans-Adam II disbands Parliament

1990  France announces it will send 4,000 troops to the Persian Gulf.

198United States Secretary of State George Shultz and Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze sign a treaty to establish centers to reduce the risk of nuclear war.

1984  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1984:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1983  Israeli premier Menachem Begin resigns.

1981  Vanuatu becomes a member of the United Nations.

Vanuatu:

History of Vanuatu:

Permanent Mission of Vanuatu to the United Nations:

1981  The John Bull becomes the oldest operable steam locomotive in the world when the Smithsonian Institution operates it under its own power outside Washington, D.C.

1981  The Senate Judiciary Committee unanimously approves Sandra Day O’Connor to become the first female justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

1979  USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1979:

1978  Muhammad Ali outpointed Leon Spinks in a rematch to become the first boxer to win the world heavyweight title three times at the Superdome in New Orleans.

1977  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1975  The French department of “Corse” (the entire island of Corsica) is divided into two: Haute-Corse (Upper Corsica) and Corse-du-Sud (Southern Corsica)

1966  US President Lyndon B. Johnson, responding to a sniper attack at the University of Texas at Austin, writes a letter to Congress urging the enactment of gun control legislation.

1962  The Soviet ship Poltava heads toward Cuba, one of the events that sets into motion the Cuban Missile Crisis.

1962  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1962:

USSR Nuclear Tests Overview:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

1959  Nikita Khrushchev becomes the first Soviet leader to visit the United States.

Nikita Khrushchev:

195The United Nations cedes Eritrea to Ethiopia.

1950  Korean War: United States forces land at Inchon

Battle of Inchon:

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1948  The F-86 Sabre sets the world aircraft speed record at 671 miles per hour (1,080 km/h).

1947  RCA releases the 12AX7 vacuum tube.

1945  A hurricane in southern Florida and the Bahamas destroys 366 planes and 25 blimps at NAS Richmond.

1944  Battle of Peleliu begins as the United States Marine Corps1st Marine Division and the United States Army‘s 81st Infantry Division hit White and Orange beaches under heavy fire from Japanese infantry and artillery.

1944  Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meet in Quebec as part of the Octagon Conference to discuss strategy.

1942  World War II: US Navy aircraft carrier USS Wasp is sunk by a Japanese torpedo at Guadalcanal.

1940  World War II: The climax of the Battle of Britain, when the Royal Air Force shoots down large numbers of Luftwaffe aircraft.

1935  Nazi Germany adopts a new national flag bearing the swastika.

Swastika:

History of Nazi Germany:

History of Germany:

1935  The Nuremberg Laws deprive German Jews of citizenship.

Nuremberg Laws:

1916  World War I: Tanks are used for the first time in battle, at the Battle of the Somme.

Military Tanks in World War I:

1894  First Sino-Japanese War: Japan defeats Qing dynasty China in the Battle of Pyongyang.

Battle of Pyongyang:

First Sino-Japanese War:

Second Sino-Japanese War:

1873  Franco-Prussian War: The last German troops leave France upon completion of payment of indemnity.

Franco-Prussian War:

Timelines of the Franco-Prussian War:

1835  HMS Beagle, with Charles Darwin aboard, reaches the Galápagos Islands. The ship lands at Chatham or San Cristobal, the easternmost of the archipelago.

1821  Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica jointly declare independence from Spain.

1820  Constitutionalist revolution in Lisbon, Portugal.

1816  HMS Whiting runs aground on the Doom Bar

1812  War of 1812: A second supply train sent to relieve Fort Harrison is ambushed in the Attack at the Narrows.

1812  The French army under Napoleon reaches the Kremlin in Moscow.

1789  The United States “Department of Foreign Affairs”, established by law in July, is renamed the Department of State and given a variety of domestic duties.

1762  Seven Years’ War: Battle of Signal Hill.

1616  The first non-aristocratic, free public school in Europe is opened in Frascati, Italy.

 

 

SEPTEMBER 16

2014  The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant launches its Kobane offensive against Syrian–Kurdish forces.

Kobane Offensive:

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) – a.k.a. Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) or simply the Islamic State (IS):

ISIS/ISIL and the United States? :

Training, Support and Funding:

ISIS/ISIL and Israel? :

Supply of Weapons to ISIS/ISIL:

How ISIS/ISIL Uses Oil to Finance Its Terror Operations

Buyers of ISIS/ISIL Oil:

2007  Mercenaries working for Blackwater Worldwide shoot and kill 17 Iraqis in Nisour Square, Baghdad; all criminal charges against them are later dismissed, however they are later tried and convicted of the crime.

2005  The Camorra organized crime boss Paolo Di Lauro is arrested in Naples, Italy.

1994  The British government lifts the broadcasting ban imposed against members of Sinn Féin and Irish paramilitary groups in 1988.

Sinn Féin:

History of Sinn Féin:

Sinn Féin, IRA and the Catholic Church:

Irish Republican Army (IRA)/Provisional Republican Army (PIRA):

IRA’s Terrorism:

History of the IRA:

1992  Black Wednesday: The pound is forced out of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism by currency speculators and is forced to devalue against the German mark.

Black Wednesday of September 1992:

1992  The trial of the deposed Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega ends in the United States with a 40-year sentence for drug trafficking and money laundering.

1990  The railroad between the People’s Republic of China and Kazakhstan is completed at Dostyk, adding a sizable link to the concept of the Eurasian Land Bridge.

1987  The Montreal Protocol is signed to protect the ozone layer from depletion.

1987  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1987:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1982  1982 Lebanon war: the Sabra and Shatila massacre in Lebanon takes place.

Sabra and Shatila Massacre:

1982 Lebanon War:

1980  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines join the United Nations.

Permanent Mission of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines to the United Nations:

1979  USSR performs underground nuclear test at Donesk, Ukraine, USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1979:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1976  Shavarsh Karapetyan saves 20 people from the trolleybus that had fallen into Yerevan reservoir.

1975  The first prototype of the Mikoyan MiG-31 interceptor makes its maiden flight.

1975  The Cape Verde Islands, Mozambique, and São Tomé and Príncipe join the United Nations.

1975  Papua New Guinea gains independence from Australia.

Papua New Guinea:

History of Papua New Guinea:

1970  King Hussein of Jordan declares military rule following the hijacking of four civilian airliners by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). This results in the formation of the Black September Palestinian paramilitary unit.

Jordan in September 1970:

Jordan:

History of Jordan:

196USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1967:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1963  Malaysia is formed from the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo (Sabah) and Sarawak. However, Singapore soon leaves this new country.

Malaysia:

History of Malaysia:

1962  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1962:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

1961  USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

1959  The first successful photocopier, the Xerox 914, is introduced in a demonstration on live television from New York City.

1955  A Soviet Navy Zulu-class submarine becomes the first submarine to launch a ballistic missile.

1955  The military coup to unseat President Juan Perón of Argentina is launched at midnight.

1945  World War II: The surrender of the Japanese troops in Hong Kong is accepted by Royal Navy Admiral Sir Cecil Harcourt.

1943  World War II: The Allied invasion of Italy concludes when Heinrich von Vietinghoff, commander of the German Tenth Army, orders his troops to withdraw from Salerno.

1941  World War II: Concerned that Reza Shah Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran, was about to ally his petroleum-rich empire with Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union invade Iran in late August and force the Shah to abdicate in favor of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

1940  World War II: Italian troops conquer Sidi Barrani.

1920  The Wall Street bombing: A bomb in a horse wagon explodes in front of the J. P. Morgan building in New York City killing 38 and injuring 400.

1919  The American Legion is incorporated.

1908  The General Motors Corporation is founded.

1880  The Cornell Daily Sun prints its first issue in Ithaca, New York. The Sun is the nation’s oldest, continuously-independent college daily.

1863  Robert College of IstanbulTurkey, the first American educational institution outside the United States, is founded by Christopher Robert, an American philanthropist.

1812  The Fire of Moscow begins shortly after midnight and destroys three quarters of the city days later.

1810  With the Grito de Dolores, Father Miguel Hidalgo begins Mexico’s fight for independence from Spain.

1795  The first occupation by United Kingdom of Cape Colony, South Africa with the Battle of Hout Bay, after successive victories at the Battle of Muizenberg and Wynberg, after William V requested protection against revolutionary France’s occupation of the Netherlands.

 

 

SEPTEMBER 17

2011  Occupy Wall Street movement begins in Zuccotti Park, New York City.

Occupy Wall Street:

2006  An audio tape of a private speech by Hungarian Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány is leaked to the public, in which he confessed that his Hungarian Socialist Party had lied to win the 2006 election, sparking widespread protests across the country.

2006  Fourpeaked Mountain in Alaska erupts, marking the first eruption for the long-dormant volcano in at least 10,000 years.

2001  The New York Stock Exchange reopens for trading after the September 11 attacks, the longest closure since the Great Depression.

1992  An Iranian Kurdish leader and his two joiners are assassinated by political militants in Berlin, Germany.

1991  The first version of the Linux kernel (0.01) is released to the Internet.

1991  Estonia, North Korea, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands and Micronesia join the United Nations.

1984  USSR performs underground nuclear test at Kemorovo, Russia.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1984:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

1983  Vanessa Williams becomes the first black Miss America.

Vanessa Williams:

Beauty Contest and Racism:

American Anthropological Association’s Statement on “Race” and Relevant Issues:

1980  Former Nicaraguan President Anastasio Somoza Debayle is killed in Asunción, Paraguay.

1980  After weeks of strikes at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk, Poland, the nationwide independent trade union Solidarity is established.

1978  The Camp David Accords are signed by Israel and Egypt.

Camp David Accords of 1978:

1976  The first Space Shuttle, Enterprise, is unveiled by NASA.

1974  Bangladesh, Grenada and Guinea-Bissau join the United Nations.

1965  The Battle of Chawinda is fought between Pakistan and India.

1961  The world’s first retractable-dome stadium, the Civic Arena, opens in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

195US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Nevada Test Site.

Atmospheric Nuclear Testing at the Nevada Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1957  Malaysia joins the United Nations.

Malaysia:

History of Malaysia:

1948  The Nizam of Hyderabad surrenders his sovereignty over the Hyderabad State and joins the Indian Union.

1948  The Lehi (also known as the Stern gang) assassinates Count Folke Bernadotte, who was appointed by the United Nations to mediate between the Arab nations and Israel.

1944  World War II: Soviet troops launch the Tallinn Offensive against Germany and pro independence Estonian units.

1944  World War II: Allied Airborne troops parachute into the Netherlands as the “Market” half of Operation Market Garden.

1943  World War II: The Russian city of Bryansk is liberated from Germans.

1941  World War II: Soviet forces enter Teheran marking the end of the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran.

1941  World War II: A decree of the Soviet State Committee of Defense, restoring Vsevobuch in the face of the Great Patriotic War, is issued.

1940  World War II: Following the German defeat in the Battle of Britain, Hitler postpones Operation Sea Lion indefinitely.

1939  World War II: A German U-boat U 29 sinks the British aircraft carrier HMS Courageous.

1939  World War II: The Soviet Union joins Nazi Germany‘s invasion of Poland during the Polish Defensive War of 1939.

1932  A speech by Laureano Gómez leads to the escalation of the Leticia Incident.

1930  The Ararat rebellion is suppressed.

1924  The Church of Central Africa, Presbyterian is formed.

1924  The Border Defence Corps is established in the Second Polish Republic for the defence of the eastern border against armed Soviet raids and local bandits.

1916  World War I: Manfred von Richthofen (“The Red Baron”), a flying ace of the German Luftstreitkräfte, wins his first aerial combat near Cambrai, France.

1914  World War I:The Race to the Sea begins.

1908  The Wright Flyer flown by Orville Wright, with Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge as passenger, crashes, killing Selfridge. He becomes the first airplane fatality.

1901  The Battle of Elands River is fought.

1901  The Battle of Blood River Poort is fought.

1900  Philippine–American War: Filipinos under Juan Cailles defeat Americans under Colonel Benjamin F. Cheatham at Mabitac.

Philippine-American War:

1894  Battle of Yalu River, the largest naval engagement of the First Sino-Japanese War.

Battle of Yalu River of 1894:

First Sino-Japanese War:

Second Sino-Japanese War:

1861  Battle of Pavón is fought.

1849  American abolitionist Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery.

1814  Francis Scott Key finishes his poem “Defence of Fort McHenry“, later to be the lyrics of “The Star-Spangled Banner”.

1813  The Second Battle of Kulm is fought.

1809  Peace between Sweden and Russia in the Finnish War. The territory to become Finland is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn.

1794  The Battle of Peyrestortes is fought.

1798  The Battle of Peyrestortes is fought.

1787  The United States Constitution is signed in Philadelphia.

1778  The Treaty of Fort Pitt is signed. It is the first formal treaty between the United States and a Native American tribe (the Lenape or Delaware Indians).

___________________________________________

(Sources and references: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September11    to_September_17; http://www.onthisday.com/events/september/11    to september/17;   http://www.brainyhistory.com/days/september_11.html.   to september_17.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

 

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 11 September 2017.

Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: This Week in History, is included. Thank you.

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