This Week in History

HISTORY, 9 October 2017

Satoshi Ashikaga – TRANSCEND Media Service

Oct 9-15, 2017

QUOTE OF THE WEEK:

“Those who love deeply never grow old; they may die of old age, but they die young.” –- Dorothy Canfield Fischer

 

OCTOBER 09

Today is the WORLD POST DAY:

2012  Members of the Pakistani Taliban make a failed attempt to assassinate Malala Yousafzai on her way home from school.

Taliban:

History of Taliban:

Is the Taliban a Terrorist Organization? :

2006  North Korea allegedly tests its first nuclear device.

Timeline: North Korea’s Nuclear Development Program:

2001  Second mailing of anthrax letters from Trenton, New Jersey in the 2001 anthrax attacks.

1992  A 13 kilogram (est.) fragment of the Peekskill meteorite lands in the driveway of the Knapp residence in Peekskill, New York, destroying the family’s 1980 Chevrolet Malibu.

1991  Ecuador becomes a member of the Berne Convention.

1989  An official news agency in the Soviet Union reports the landing of a UFO in Voronezh.

1985  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1983  Rangoon bombing: Attempted assassination of South Korean President Chun Doo-hwan during an official visit to Rangoon, Burma. Chun survives but the blast kills 17 of his entourage, including four cabinet ministers, and injures 17 others. Four Burmese officials also die in the blast.

1981  Abolition of capital punishment in France.

1980  Pope John Paul II shakes hands with the Dalai Lama during a private audience in Vatican City.

1971  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1971:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1970  The Khmer Republic is proclaimed in Cambodia.

Khmer Rouge:

Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) or a.k.a. Khmer Rouge Tribunal:

Law and Procedure of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC)

Cambodia:

Foreign Relations of Cambodia:

History of Cambodia:

Economy of Cambodia:

1969  In Chicago, the United States National Guard is called in for crowd control as demonstrations continue in connection with the trial of the “Chicago Eight” that began on September 24.

1967  A day after being captured, Marxist revolutionary Ernesto “Che” Guevara is executed for attempting to incite a revolution in Bolivia.

1966  Vietnam War: Diên Niên – Phước Bình massacre

Vietnam War in 1966:

Diên Niên – Phước Bình Massacre:

1966  Vietnam War: Binh Tai Massacre

Binh Tai Massacre:

Vietnam War in 1966:

1963  In northeast Italy, over 2,000 people are killed when a large landslide behind the Vajont Dam causes a giant wave of water to overtop it.

1962  Uganda becomes an independent Commonwealth realm.

Uganda:

Foreign Relations of Uganda:

History of Uganda:

Economy of Uganda:

1950  Goyang Geumjeong Cave massacre started.

Goyang Geumjeong Cave Massacre:

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1942  The last day of the October Matanikau action on Guadalcanal as United States Marine Corps forces withdraw back across the Matanikau River after destroying most of the Imperial Japanese Army‘s 4th Infantry Regiment.

1942  Statute of Westminster 1931 formalises Australian autonomy.

1941  A coup in Panama declares Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia Arango the new president.

1940  World War II: Battle of Britain: During a night-time air raid by the German Luftwaffe, St. Paul’s Cathedral in the City of London, England is hit by a bomb.

1936  Generators at Boulder Dam (later renamed to Hoover Dam) begin to generate electricity from the Colorado River and transmit it 266 miles to Los Angeles.

1934  Regicide at Marseille: The assassination of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia and Louis Barthou, Foreign Minister of France.

1914  World War I: Siege of Antwerp: Antwerp, Belgium falls to German troops.

Siege of Antwerp of 1914:

1911  An accidental bomb explosion in Hankou, Wuhan, China leads to the ultimate fall of the Qing Empire

1900  The Cook Islands become a territory of the United Kingdom.

1854  Crimean War: The siege of Sebastopol begins.

Sevastopol:

Crimean War:

Timeline of Crimean War:

1824  Slavery is abolished in Costa Rica.

Costa Rica:

Foreign Relations of Costa Rica

History of Costa Rica:

Slavery of Costa Rica:

Economy of Costa Rica:

1820  Guayaquil declares independence from Spain.

Guayaquil:

History of Guayaquil:

Ecuador:

History of Ecuador:

Economy of Ecuador:

 

 

OCTOBER 10

Today is the WORLD MENTAL HEALTH DAY:

2010  Cable channel The Hub made its debut in the United States.

2010  The Netherlands Antilles are dissolved as a country.

2009  Armenia and Turkey sign protocols in Zurich, Switzerland to open their borders.

2008  The 2008 Orakzai bombing kills 110 and injures 200 more.

1998  A Lignes Aériennes Congolaises Boeing 727 is shot down by rebels in Kindu, Democratic Republic of the Congo, killing 41 people.

1986  An earthquake measuring 7.5 on the Richter scale strikes San Salvador, El Salvador, killing an estimated 1,500 people.

1985  United States Navy F-14 fighter jets intercept an Egyptian plane carrying the hijackers of the Achille Lauro cruise ship, and force it to land at a NATO base in Sigonella, Sicily where they are arrested.

1980  FMLN was founded in El Salvador.

1980  A magnitude 7.3 earthquake occurs in the Algerian town of El Asnam. Around 3,500 die and 300,000 are left homeless.

1975  Papua New Guinea joins the United Nations.

1970  In Montreal, a national crisis hits Canada when Quebec Vice-Premier and Minister of Labour Pierre Laporte becomes the second statesman kidnapped by members of the FLQ terrorist group.

1970  Fiji becomes independent.

Fiji:

Foreign Relations of Fiji:

History of Fiji:

Economy of Fiji:

1968  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

Operation Bowline:

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1967  The Outer Space Treaty, signed on January 27 by more than sixty nations, comes into force.

Outer Space Treaty:

1964  The opening ceremony of the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Japan, is broadcast live in the first Olympic telecast relayed by geostationary communication satellite.

1963  France cedes control of the Bizerte naval base to Tunisia.

1961  US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Nevada Test Site.

Atmospheric Nuclear Testing at the Nevada Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1958  US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Nevada Test Site.

1958  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1958:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1957  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

1957  The Windscale fire in Cumbria, UK is the world’s first major nuclear accident.

1957  US President Dwight D. Eisenhower apologizes to the finance minister of Ghana, Komla Agbeli Gbedemah, after he is refused service in a Dover, Delaware restaurant.

1953  Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea is concluded in Washington, D.C.

1945  The Chinese Communist Party and the Kuomintang signed a principle agreement in Chongqing about the future of post-war China. Later, the pact is commonly referred to as the Double Tenth Agreement.

1944  Holocaust: Eight hundred the Romani People (a.k.a. Gypsy) children are murdered at Auschwitz concentration camp.

Eight Hundred Romani Children Gassed to Death at Auschwitz:

Romani (Roma) People:

Genocide of the Romani People:

1943  Double Tenth Incident in Japanese-controlled Singapore

Double Tenth Incident:

Massacres in Singapore, and Some Pertinent Atrocities:

International Military Tribunal in the Far East (a.k.a. Tokyo Military Tribunal):

1942  The Soviet Union establishes diplomatic relations with Australia.

1938  The Munich Agreement cedes the Sudetenland to Nazi Germany.

Sudeten Crisis:

1935  A coup d’état by the royalist leadership of the Greek Armed Forces takes place in Athens. It overthrows the government of Panagis Tsaldaris and establishes a regency under Georgios Kondylis, effectively ending the Second Hellenic Republic.

1928  Chiang Kai-shek becomes Chairman of the Republic of China.

1920  The Carinthian plebiscite determines that the larger part of the Duchy of Carinthia should remain part of Austria.

1913  United States President Woodrow Wilson triggers the explosion of the Gamboa Dike thus ending construction on the Panama Canal.

1911  The Wuchang Uprising leads to the demise of the Qing dynasty, the last Imperial court in China, and the founding of the Republic of China.

1910  Tau Epsilon Phi: Tau Epsilon Phi Fraternity is founded on the campus of Columbia University in New York City, New York.

1897  German chemist Felix Hoffmann discovers an improved way of synthesizing acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin).

1871  The Great Chicago Fire: Chicago burns after a barn accident. The fire lasts from October 8 to October 10.

1868  Carlos Céspedes issues the Grito de Yara from his plantation, La Demajagua, proclaiming Cuba‘s independence

1846  Triton, the largest moon of the planet Neptune, is discovered by English astronomer William Lassell.

 

 

OCTOBER 11

Today in the INTERNATIONAL DAY OF THE GIRL CHILD:

2002  A bomb attack in a shopping mall in Vantaa, Finland kills seven.

2000  NASA launches STS-92, the 100th Space Shuttle mission, using Space Shuttle Discovery.

1987  Start of Operation Pawan by Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka that killed thousands of ethnic Tamil civilians and hundreds of Tamil Tigers & Indian Army soldiers.

Operation Pawan:

1986  Cold War: U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev meet in Reykjavík, Iceland, in an effort to continue discussions about scaling back their intermediate missile arsenals in Europe.

1984  Aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger, astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan becomes the first American woman to perform a space walk.

1980  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1980:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

1976  George Washington‘s appointment, posthumously, to the grade of General of the Armies by congressional joint resolution Public Law 94-479 is approved by President Gerald R. Ford.

1972  A race riot occurs on the United States Navy aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk off the coast of Vietnam during Operation Linebacker.

1968  Apollo program: NASA launches Apollo 7, the first successful manned Apollo mission, with astronauts Wally Schirra, Donn F. Eisele and Walter Cunningham aboard.

1962  Second Vatican Council: Pope John XXIII convenes the first ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church in 92 years.

Vatican Council II:

Vatican Council II Documents:

196USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1961:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1958  Pioneer program: NASA launches the lunar probe Pioneer 1 (the probe falls back to Earth and burns up).

1957  Space Race: MIT scientists calculate Sputnik 1‘s booster rocket’s orbit.

1954  First Indochina War: The Viet Minh take control of North Vietnam.

1950  Television: CBS’s mechanical color system is the first to be licensed for broadcast by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.

1944  Tuvan People’s Republic or formerly Tannu Tuva is annexed by the USSR

1942  World War II: Battle of Cape Esperance – On the northwest coast of Guadalcanal, United States Navy ships intercept and defeat a Japanese fleet on their way to reinforce troops on the island.

1941  Beginning of the National Liberation War of Macedonia.

National Liberation War of Macedonia:

History of (the former Yugoslav part of the Republic of) Macedonia:

1918  San Fermín earthquake hits western Puerto Rico.

1912  First Balkan War: The Greek Army liberates the city of Kozani.

1899  Second Boer War begins: In South Africa, a war between the United Kingdom and the Boers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State erupts.

1865  Paul Bogle led hundreds of black men and women in a march in Jamaica, starting the Morant Bay rebellion.

1864  Campina Grande, Brazil, is established as a city.

1833  A big demonstration at the gates of the legislature of Buenos Aires forces the ousting of governor Juan Ramón Balcarce and his replacement with Juan José Viamonte.

1811  Inventor John Stevens‘ boat, the Juliana, begins operation as the first steam-powered ferry (service between New York City, New York, and Hoboken, New Jersey).

 

 

OCTOBER 12

2005  The second Chinese human spaceflight Shenzhou 6 launched carrying Fèi Jùnlóng and Niè Hǎishèng for five days in orbit.

2002  Terrorists detonate bombs in the Sari Club in Kuta, Bali, killing 202 and wounding over 300.

2000  The USS Cole is badly damaged in Aden, Yemen, by two suicide bombers, killing 17 crew members and wounding at least 39.

1999  The former Autonomous Soviet Republic of Abkhazia declares its independence from Georgia

1999  Pervez Musharraf takes power in Pakistan from Nawaz Sharif through a bloodless coup.

1997  Sidi Daoud massacre in Algeria that killed 43 at a fake roadblock.

Sidi Daoud massacre:

Algeria:

Foreign Relations of Algeria:

Algeria and the United Nations:

History of Algeria:

Economy of Algeria:

1992  1992 Cairo earthquake”, Egypt. At least 510 died.

1991  Askar Akayev, previously chosen President of Kyrgyzstan by republic’s Supreme Soviet, is confirmed president in an uncontested poll.

1988  Birchandra Manu massacre in Tripura, India

1988  Jaffna University Helidrop: Commandos of Indian Peace Keeping Force raided the Jaffna University campus to capture the LTTE chief and walked into a trap.

1986  Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh visit the People’s Republic of China

1985  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1984  Brighton hotel bombing: The Provisional Irish Republican Army attempt to assassinate Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her cabinet. Thatcher escapes but the bomb kills five people and wounds 31.

1973  Japan’s former Prime Minister Tanaka Kakuei is found guilty of taking a $2 million bribe from Lockheed and is sentenced to four years in jail.

1979  The lowest recorded non-tornadic atmospheric pressure, 87.0 kPa (870 mbar or 25.69 inHg), occurred in the Western Pacific during Typhoon Tip.

1979  The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, the first of five books in the Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy comedy science fiction series by Douglas Adams is published

1970  Vietnam War: US President Richard Nixon announces that the United States will withdraw 40,000 more troops before Christmas

1968  Equatorial Guinea becomes independent from Spain

Equatorial Guinea:

Foreign Relations of Equatorial Guinea:

History of Equatorial Guinea:

Economy of Equatorial Guinea:

1967  Vietnam War: US Secretary of State Dean Rusk states during a news conference that proposals by the US Congress for peace initiatives are futile because of North Vietnam‘s opposition.

Vietnam War in 1967:

Dean Rusk’s Criticism on Oct 12, 1967:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

Vietnam War Peace Talks/Negotiations:

For and Anti-Vietnam War Movements:

1964  The Soviet Union launches the Voskhod 1 into Earth orbit as the first spacecraft with a multi-person crew and the first flight without space suits

1963  After nearly 23 years of imprisonment, Reverend Walter Ciszek, a Jesuit missionary, was released from the Soviet Union.

1962  US performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Nevada Test Site.

Atmospheric Nuclear Testing at the Nevada Site:

Atmospheric/High-altitude Nuclear Explosion Testing:

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests of the United States and Radioactive Fallout:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

US Nuclear Tests at Nevada Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1961  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Test in 1961:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1960  Television viewers in Japan unexpectedly witness the assassination of Inejiro Asanuma, leader of the Japan Socialist Party, when he is stabbed and killed during a live broadcast.

1960  Cold War: Nikita Khrushchev pounds his shoe on a desk at United Nations General Assembly meeting to protest a Philippine assertion of Soviet Union colonial policy being conducted in Eastern Europe

1959  At the national congress of APRA in Peru a group of leftist radicals are expelled from the party. They will later form APRA Rebelde.

1958  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1958:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

1945  World War II: Desmond Doss is the first conscientious objector to receive the US Medal of Honor.

Conscientious Objection and Objector:

History of Conscientious Objection:

“Conscientious Objection”? : A Case of an Official’s Religious Belief against the Same Sex Marriage:

1944  World War II: The Liberation of Athens from the German invaders.

Liberation of Athens from German Occupations:

Photographs and videos on the Liberation of Athens from the German Occupation:

1942  World War II: Japanese ships retreat after their defeat in the Battle of Cape Esperance with the Japanese commander, Aritomo Gotō dying from wounds suffered in the battle and two Japanese destroyers sunk by Allied air attack.

1928  An iron lung respirator is used for the first time at Children’s Hospital, Boston

1917  World War I: The First Battle of Passchendaele takes place resulting in the largest single day loss of life in New Zealand history.

1915  World War I: British nurse Edith Cavell is executed by a German firing squad for helping Allied soldiers escape from Belgium

1890  Uddevalla Suffrage Association is formed.

1871  Criminal Tribes Act (CTA) enacted by British rule in India, which named over 160 local communities ‘Criminal Tribes‘, i.e. hereditary criminals. Repealed in 1949, after Independence of India.

1823  Charles Macintosh of Scotland sells the first raincoat.

1822  Pedro I of Brazil is proclaimed the emperor of the Empire of Brazil.

Empire of Brazil:

 

 

OCTOBER 13

2013  A stampede breaks out on a bridge near the Ratangarh Mata Temple in Datia district, Madhya Pradesh, India during the Hindu festival Navratri, killing 115 people and injuring more than 110.

2010  The 2010 Copiapó mining accident in Copiapó, Chile comes to an end as all 33 miners arrive at the surface after surviving a record 69 days underground awaiting rescue.

1992  An Antonov An-124 operated by Antonov Airlines registered CCCP-82002, crashes near Kiev, Ukraine killing 8.

1990  End of the Lebanese Civil War. Syrian forces launch an attack on the free areas of Lebanon removing General Michel Aoun from the presidential palace.

Lebanese Civil War:

October 13 Massacre:

Taif Agreement of 1989 and Lebanon-Syria Treaty of 1991:

A Few Pertinent UN Resolutions, among Many Others:

Special Tribunal for Lebanon:

Lebanon:

Foreign Relations of Lebanon:

History of Lebanon:

Economy of Lebanon:

1988  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1983  Ameritech Mobile Communications (now AT&T Inc.) launched the first US cellular network in Chicago.

1977  Four Palestinians hijack Lufthansa Flight 181 to Somalia and demand release of 11 members of the Red Army Faction.

1976  The first electron micrograph of an Ebola viral particle is obtained by Dr. F.A. Murphy, now at UC Davis, who was then working at the C.D.C.

1976  A Bolivian Boeing 707 cargo jet crashes in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, killing 100 (97, mostly children, killed on the ground).

1972  Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 crashes in the Andes mountains, near the border between Argentina and Chile. By December 23, 1972, only 16 out of 45 people lived long enough to be rescued.

1972  An Aeroflot Ilyushin Il-62 crashes outside Moscow killing 174.

1970  Fiji joins the United Nations.

Fiji:

Foreign Relations of Fiji:

Fiji and the United Nations:

History of Fiji:

Economy of Fiji:

1970  USSR performs nuclear test at Sary Shagan, USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1970:

Sary-Shagan Test Site:

1946  France adopts the constitution of the Fourth Republic.

Fourth Republic and the Constitution:

1944  World War II: Riga, the capital of Latvia is occupied by the Red Army.

Occupation of Latvia and Its Relevant History:

Latvia:

Foreign Relations of Latvia:

History of Latvia:

Economy of Latvia:

1943  World War II: The new government of Italy sides with the Allies and declares war on Germany.

1923  Ankara replaces Istanbul as the capital of Turkey.

1921  The Soviet republics of Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia sign the Treaty of Kars with the Grand National Assembly of Turkey to establish the contemporary borders between Turkey and the South Caucasus states.

Treaty of Kars:

1918  Mehmed Talat Pasha and the Young Turk (C.U.P.) ministry resign and sign an armistice, ending Ottoman participation in World War I.

1917  The “Miracle of the Sun” is witnessed by an estimated 70,000 people in the Cova da Iria in Fátima, Portugal.

Miracle of the Sun in Fátima:

1915  The Battle of the Hohenzollern Redoubt marks the end of the Battle of Loos in northern France, World War I.

1892  Edward Emerson Barnard discovers D/1892 T1, the first comet discovered by photographic means, on the night of October 13–14.

1884  Greenwich, in London, England, is established as Universal Time meridian of longitude.

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT):

1881  First known conversation in modern Hebrew by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda and friends.

1843  In New York City, Henry Jones and 11 others found B’nai B’rith (the oldest Jewish service organization in the world).

1812  War of 1812: Battle of Queenston Heights – As part of the Niagara campaign in Ontario, Canada, United States forces under General Stephen Van Rensselaer are repulsed from invading Canada by British and native troops led by Sir Isaac Brock.

1773  The Whirlpool Galaxy is discovered by Charles Messier.

1710  Port Royal, the capital of French Acadia, falls in a siege by British forces.

 

 

OCTOBER 14

2014  A snowstorm and avalanche in the Nepalese Himalayas triggered by the remnants of Cyclone Hudhud kills 43 people.

2012  20 people are gunned down in a mosque in Dogo Dawa, Nigeria.

Nigeria:

Economy of Nigeria:

History of Nigeria:

1994  The Palestinian leader, Yasser Arafat, The Prime Minister of Israel, Yitzhak Rabin, and the Foreign Minister of Israel, Shimon Peres, receive the Nobel Peace Prize for their role in the establishment of the Oslo Accords and the framing of the future Palestinian Self Government.

Oslo Accords:

1991  The Norwegian Nobel Committee decides to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 1991 to Aung San Suu Kyi of Myanmar (Burma) for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights.

1983  Maurice Bishop, Prime Minister of Grenada, is overthrown and later executed in a military coup d’état led by Bernard Coard.

1982  US President Ronald Reagan proclaims a War on Drugs.

War on Drugs:

Case Study (1-1)Nixon’s War on Drugs of 1971:

Case Study (1-2) – Racism and Militarism behind Nixon’s War on Drugs:

Case Study (2) – CIA’s Project MK-Ultra:

1981  Vice President Hosni Mubarak is elected as the President of Egypt one week after the assassination of the President of Egypt, Anwar Sadat. Vice President Hosni Mubarak is elected as the President of Egypt one week after the assassination of the President of Egypt, Anwar Sadat.

Hosni Mubarak:

Hosni Mubarak’s Regime:

Political Unrest of Egypt in January 2011:

1979  The first Gay Rights March on Washington, DC, the National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights, demands “an end to all social, economic, judicial, and legal oppression of lesbian and gay people”, and draws 200,000 people.

LGBT Rights:

1976  The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences decides to award the 1976 Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel to Professor Milton Friedman, University of Chicago, Illinois, USA.

1973  In the Thammasat student uprising over 100,000 people protest in Thailand against the Thanom military government, 77 are killed and 857 are injured by soldiers.

1970  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1970:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

1970  US performs nuclear test (underground) at Nevada Test Site.

US Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

Ecological and Health Issues in and around the Nevada Test Site:

1969  USSR performs nuclear tests at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1969:

1968  Jim Hines of the United States of America becomes the first man ever to break the so-called “ten-second barrier” in the 100-meter sprint in the Summer Olympic Games held in Mexico City with a time of 9.95 seconds.

1968  Apollo program: The first live TV broadcast, by American astronauts in orbit, was performed by the Apollo 7 crew.

1968  Vietnam War: The United States Department of Defense announces that the US Army and US Marine Corps will send about 24,000 soldiers and Marines back to Vietnam for involuntary second tours of duty in the combat zone there.

1968  Vietnam War: Twenty-seven soldiers are arrested at the Presidio of San Francisco in California for their peaceful protest of stockade conditions and the Vietnam War.

Vietnam War in 1968:

Anti-Viet Nam War Movement or Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War:

1964  Leonid Brezhnev becomes the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and thereby, along with his allies, such as Alexei Kosygin, the leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), ousting the former monolithic leader Nikita Khrushchev, and sending him into retirement as a nonperson in the USSR.

Leonid Brezhnev

1964  Martin Luther King, Jr receives the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence.

Martin Luther King, Jr.:

History of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States – Overview:

Civil Rights Movements of Various Ethnic Minorities in the United States:

1962  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1962:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

1962  The Cuban Missile Crisis begins: A US Air Force U-2 reconnaissance plane and its pilot fly over the island of Cuba and take photographs of Soviet missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads being installed and erected in Cuba.

Cuban Missile Crisis:

Timeline of the Cuban Missile Crisis:

1958  US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1958  The American Atomic Energy Commission, with supporting military units, carries out an underground nuclear weapon test at the Nevada Test Site, just north of Las Vegas.

Nuclear Weapons and the United States:

Atomic Energy Commission of the United States:

History of the Atomic Energy Commission of the United States:

Nevada Test Site:

1956  Dr B R Ambedkar, the Indian Untouchable caste leader, converts to Buddhism along with 385,000 of his followers (see Neo-Buddhism).

Battle of Triangle Hill:

1952  Korean War: United Nations and South Korean forces launch Operation Showdown against Chinese strongholds at the Iron Triangle. The resulting Battle of Triangle Hill is the biggest and bloodiest battle of 1952.

Battle of Triangle Hill:

Korean War:

Korean War Timelines:

1949  Chinese Civil War: Chinese Communist forces occupy the city of Guangzhou (Canton), in Guangdong, China.

1949  Eleven leaders of the American Communist Party are convicted, after a nine-month trial in a Federal District Court, of conspiring to advocate the violent overthrow of the US Federal Government.

1947  Captain Chuck Yeager of the United States Air Force flies a Bell X-1 rocket-powered experimental aircraft, the Glamorous Glennis, faster than the speed of sound over the high desert of Southern California and becomes the first pilot and the first airplane to do so in level flight.

1944  Linked to a plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel is forced to commit suicide.

1944  World War II: Athens, Greece, is liberated by British Army troops entering the city as the Wehrmacht pulls out. This clears the way for the Greek government-in-exile to return to its historic capital city, with George Papandreou, Sr., as the head of government.

1943  World War II: The American Eighth Air Force loses 60 B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers in aerial combat during the second mass-daylight air raid on the Schweinfurt ball bearing factories in western Nazi Germany.

1943  Prisoners at the Nazi German Sobibór extermination camp in Poland revolt against the Germans, killing eleven SS guards, and wounding many more. About 300 of the Sobibor Camp’s 600 prisoners escape, and about 50 of these survive the end of the war.

Sobibór Extermination Camp:

1939  The German submarine U-47 sinks the British battleship HMS Royal Oak within her harbour at Scapa Flow, Scotland.

1933  Nazi Germany withdraws from the League of Nations.

Nazi Germany’s Withdrawal from the League of Nations:

League of Nations:

Covenant of the League of Nations:

1925  An Anti-French uprising in French-occupied Damascus, Syria. (All French inhabitants flee the city.)

1920  Part of Petsamo Province is ceded by the Soviet Union to Finland.

1915  World War I: The Kingdom of Bulgaria joins the Central Powers.

1808  The Republic of Ragusa is annexed by France.

1806  Battle of Jena–Auerstedt France defeats Prussia.

1805  Battle of Elchingen, France defeats Austria.

 

 

OCTOBER 15

2013  A 7 point 2-magnitude earthquake strikes the Philippines, resulting in more than 215 deaths.

2011  Global protests break out in 120 cities in 48 countries.

Global Protests and/or Occupy Movement on Saturday, October 15, 2011 and Beyond:

2008  The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed down 733.08 points, or 7.87%, the second worst day in the Dow’s history based on a percentage drop.

2007  Seventeen activists in New Zealand are arrested in the country’s first post 9/11 anti-terrorism raids.

2005  A riot in Toledo, Ohio breaks out during a National Socialist/Neo-Nazi protest; over 100 are arrested.

2003  China launches Shenzhou 5, its first manned space mission.

2001  NASA‘s Galileo spacecraft passes within 112 miles of Jupiter‘s moon Io.

1997  The Cassini probe launches from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn.

1997  The first supersonic land speed record is set by Andy Green in ThrustSSC (United Kingdom), exactly 50 years and one day after Chuck Yeager first broke the sound barrier in the Earth’s atmosphere.

1993  The Norwegian Nobel Committee decides to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 1993 to Nelson R. Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa.

1990  Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to lessen Cold War tensions and open up his nation.

1987  The Great Storm of 1987 hits France and England.

1985  The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences decides to award the l985 Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences to Professor Franco Modigliani, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA,

1979  Black Monday in Malta. The Building of the Times of Malta, the residence of the opposition leader Eddie Fenech Adami and several Nationalist Party clubs are ransacked and destroyed by supporters of the Malta Labour Party.

1978  USSR performs nuclear test (underground) at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1978:

USSR’s Nuclear Tests at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalatinsk:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Underground Nuclear Tests:

Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site:

Health, and Ecological Issues in Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk:

1971  The start of the 2500-year celebration of Iran, celebrating the birth of Persia.

1970  Thirty-five construction workers are killed when a section of the new West Gate Bridge in Melbourne collapses.

1969  Vietnam War; The Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam is held in Washington D.C. and across the US. Over two million demonstrate nationally; about 250,000 in Washington D.C..

Vietnam War in 1969:

Anti-Viet Nam War Movement:

Viet Nam War and Pertinent Events:

1966  The Black Panther Party is created by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.

Black Panther Party:

1965  Vietnam War: The Catholic Worker Movement stages an anti-war rally in Manhattan including a public burning of a draft card; the first such act to result in arrest under a new amendment to the Selective Service Act.

Vietnam War in 1965:

Catholic Worker Movement and the Viet Nam War:

Anti-Viet Nam War Movement:

1958  USSR performs nuclear test (atmospheric) at Novaya Zemlya USSR.

USSR Nuclear Tests in 1958:

USSR’s Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests:

Effect and/or Impact of Nuclear Weapons Tests:

Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Test Site:

1956  Fortran, the first modern computer language, is shared with the coding community for the first time.

1953  British nuclear test Totem 1 is detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.

1951  The first episode of I Love Lucy, an American television sitcom starring Lucille Ball, Desi Arnaz, Vivian Vance, and William Frawley, airs on the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS).

1951  Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes conducts the very last step of the first synthesis of norethisterone, the progestin that would later be used in one of the first three oral contraceptives.

1945  World War II: The former premier of Vichy France Pierre Laval is shot by a firing squad for treason.

1944  The Arrow Cross Party (very similar to Hitler’s NSDAP (Nazi party)) takes power in Hungary.

German Occupation of Hungary and the Arrow Cross Party:

1940  The President of Catalonia, Lluís Companys, is executed by the Spanish dictatorship of Francisco Franco, making him the only European president to have been executed.

1934  The Soviet Republic of China collapses when Chiang Kai-shek‘s National Revolutionary Army successfully encircles Ruijin, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March.

1932  Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) makes its first flight.

1928  The airship, Graf Zeppelin completes its first trans-Atlantic flight, landing at Lakehurst, New Jersey, United States.

1923  The German Rentenmark is introduced in Germany to counter hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic.

1917  World War I: At Vincennes outside Paris, Dutch dancer Mata Hari is executed by firing squad for spying for the German Empire.

1910  Airship America is launched from New Jersey in the first attempt to cross the Atlantic by a powered aircraft.

1904  The Russian Baltic Fleet leaves Reval, Estonia for Port Arthur during the Russo-Japanese War.

1894  The Dreyfus affair: Alfred Dreyfus is arrested for spying.

1888  The “From Hell” letter sent by Jack the Ripper is received by investigators.

1880  Mexican soldiers kill Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists.

1878  The Edison Electric Light Company begins operation.

1815  Napoleon I of France begins his exile on Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean.

1793  Queen Marie-Antoinette of France is tried and convicted in a swift, pre-determined trial in the Palais de Justice, Paris, and condemned to death the following day.

______________________________________________

(Sources and references: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/october9   to_october_15; http://www.onthisday.com/events/october/9   to october/15;   http://www.brainyhistory.com/days/october_9.html.   to october_15.html; and other pertinent web sites and/or documents, mentioned above.)

  1. The views expressed in the cited or quoted websites and/or documents in this article do not necessarily reflect those of the author of this article. These websites and/or documents are cited or quoted for academic or educational purposes. Neither the author of this article nor the Transcend Media Service (TMS) is responsible for the contents, information, or whatsoever contained in these websites and/or documents.
  2. One of the primary purposes of this article is to provide the readers with opportunities to think about “peace”, including positive peace and negative peace as well as external/outer peace and internal/inner peace, and more, directly or indirectly, from various angles and/or in the broadest sense, through historical events. It is because this article is prepared specifically for the TMS whose main objective is to address “peace”.

Satoshi Ashikaga, having worked as researcher, development program/project officer, legal protection/humanitarian assistance officer, human rights monitor-negotiator, managing-editor, and more, prefers a peaceful and prudent life, especially that in communion with nature.  His previous work experiences, including those in war zones and war-torn zones, remind him of the invaluableness of peace.  His interest and/or expertise includes international affairs, international law, jurisprudence, economic and business affairs, project/operations or organizational management, geography, history, the environmental/ecological issues, science and technology, visual/audio documentation of nature and culture, and more. Being a member of the TRANSCEND Network for Peace, Development and Environment, he is currently compiling This Week in History on TMS.

 

This article originally appeared on Transcend Media Service (TMS) on 9 October 2017.

Anticopyright: Editorials and articles originated on TMS may be freely reprinted, disseminated, translated and used as background material, provided an acknowledgement and link to the source, TMS: This Week in History, is included. Thank you.

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