Articles by Johan Galtung

We found 861 results.


The Cocoyoc Declaration
Johan Galtung, et al. – TRANSCEND Media Service, 20 May 2019

October 8-12, 1974 a symposium on “Patterns of Resource Use, Environment and Development Strategies” was convened in Cocoyoc, Mexico by the directors of UN Environment Programme and the UN Conference on Trade and Development. The Rapporteurs were Barbara Ward and Johan Galtung. The Cocoyoc Declaration is reproduced below, with certain sadness: it is as valid today, more than 40 years later. The two directors received a three-feet-long cable, from the US State Department, rejecting the declaration entirely. Signed by Henry Kissinger.

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A World without Walls
Johan Galtung | Academy for Cultural Diplomacy – TRANSCEND Media Service, 6 May 2019

Berlin, Nov 2010 – International Conference on Peacebuilding, Reconciliation and Globalization in an Interdependent World

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Meanwhile, Around the World
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 6 May 2019

What more is needed, beyond “dialogue of civilizations”? Like for man-woman: creating something new. A real dialogue goes beyond getting to know each other to mutual learning, beyond mutual learning to mutual visions, and beyond that to mutual practice.

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Meanwhile, Around the World: An Overview
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 2 Apr 2019

What is needed is a system where negative, violent relations are changing to neutral or no relations, where neutral or no relations are changing to positive, peaceful relations, and where positive, peaceful relations become even more peaceful and positive. The Octagon World might be one such system. But for this to work, the state system is not sufficient.

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Anti Reuter
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 4 Mar 2019

The task of journalists is to mirror reality, empirical reality, not some potential reality desired by some and-or predicted by some. It is not to mediate to change empirical reality in favor a new social reality. The task of journalists mirroring reality would include information about communities handling successfully natural and-or social disasters and how; not only all those that did not.

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Meanwhile, around the World
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 4 Feb 2019

My Syria is profoundly Muslim, run by the imams. And my Syria is profoundly Ottoman; 400 years with tolerance for the other religions of the kitab, and for non-Arabic minorities. Wanting to learn “what Syria is about today” I want them to tell me directly; not indirectly, in writing or orally, via “experts”. So, going to Syria, what touched my senses?

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Welcome, 2019! A Year for Health
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 7 Jan 2019

Being 88 and suffering from nothing, what is my health formula? Food low on carbs: low on bread, easy; on sugar-sweets, not easy. Health from food? Yes, but with taste, and with beauty. Health from exercise? Yes, but also with taste, and with beauty. TRANSCEND wishes our 70,000+ contacts around the world and everybody else a 2019 with Health. Have much fun–basic to health.

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On the Future of the World: Some Notes
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 3 Dec 2018

Two Big Words, “Future” and “World”; one small word, “notes”. To think about a dialectic holon, the world, to speak it, act it. For sure it will act upon us, so let us try a word on us upon it.

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TRANSCEND-Galtung Track Record on Conflict Solution/Mediation: 1958-2018
Johan Galtung - TRANSCEND Media Service, 26 Nov 2018

The TRANSCEND Method uses dialogues with all parties to identify their goals, testing their legitimacy, and for visions of a new social reality meeting legitimate goals. Diagnoses focus on conflict and trauma, prognoses without or with intervention, therapy on visions of solution and conciliation; proposed, propagated and realized.

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(Italiano) Un mondo senza uccisioni del (l’Impero) USA?
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 12 Nov 2018

9 novembre 2018 – Un mondo senza uccisioni US sarebbe un grosso contributo a una pace negativa, al “mondo non omicida” di Glenn Paige; il suo paese, con o senza pena di morte, che smette di uccidere ovunque capiti. Sta arrivando. E in quanto a US e una pace positiva? Potrebbero meno uccisioni US contribuire anche a quello? Anche ciò è in arrivo, come mutamento della mentalità US.

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A World without US (Empire) Killing?
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 5 Nov 2018

A world without US killing would be a major contribution to negative peace, to Glenn Paige’s “non-killing world”. His own country with or without death penalty stopping killing all over. It is coming. What about US and positive peace? Could less US killing also contribute to that? It is also coming, as a change in US mentality. There are many signs in that direction recently, as an expression of Washington now seeing the limits to “politics by military means”.

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Transition from a Unipolar to a Multipolar Octagonal World
Johan Galtung | Dialogue of Civilizations Research Institute – TRANSCEND Media Service, 22 Oct 2018

Johan Galtung, a professor of peace studies, was awarded among others the 1987 High Livelihood Award, known as the Alternative Nobel Peace Prize. Galtung has mediated in over 150 conflicts in more than 150 countries, and written more than 170 books on peace and related issues, 96 as the only author. More than 40 have been translated to other languages. He has published more than 1500 articles and book chapters and over 500 Editorials for TRANSCEND Media Service.

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Meanwhile, Around the World
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 1 Oct 2018

The pandemic of violence continues. In addition, there seems to be something new and very serious coming up: a general devaluation of human life–making killing, even genocide, easier, more like disposal of garbage. Of the Right to Life, Art 3 in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, one hears nothing, let alone of the sacredness of human life as a divine gift.

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Uprising and the End of Empire
Johan Galtung | Alternate Focus – TRANSCEND Media Service, 10 Sep 2018

Peace mediator Johan Galtung gives his analysis of the uprisings in the Arab world as an indicator the era of Western domination in the region is coming to an end.

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Meanwhile, Around the World
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 3 Sep 2018

“Mob protests in Germany show vigor of far right”, in Chemnitz. Neo-nazis. Nazism was about race–Bolshevism about class. Churchill about both–so it is probably skin color, not religion. As expected. There are difficult, bad times ahead.

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Meanwhile, around the World
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 6 Aug 2018

The state of the world is right now going from bad to worse, with more violence or threats thereof; an epidemic, even pandemic, of violence. And more inequality within and between countries and money buying votes in fake elections and politicians in fake democracies turning plutocracies run by money. And nature insulted; less diversity and less symbiosis with CFCs in the ozone layer.

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Meanwhile, around the World
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 2 Jul 2018

There are many summit meetings, usually with Trump. “Good chemistry” is not sufficient, nor is it necessary. Peace may come about in spite of, not because of, the summits. Summiteers might come further focusing on “how can we be good to each other” than on “how can we stop being bad”. Positive approach.

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Meanwhile, Around the World
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 4 Jun 2018

The world may be losing a peace opportunity in the USA-North Korea conflict. With NK nuclear-tipped missiles capable of reaching mainland USA something close to “balance of power” had been obtained, by many seen as the key to peace via “mutual and balanced” disarmament even to “general and complete disarmament”.

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Achieving Peace
Johan Galtung - TRANSCEND Media Service, 14 May 2018

Inter-University Center, Dubrovnik – University of Oslo, Norway 1975

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Meanwhile, Around the World
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 7 May 2018

The violence pandemic continues, unabated, particularly in the USA. There is interest in peace but not much in doing anything about it. And even less in what this column recommends with 60 years experience: identify and solve underlying conflicts, concile underlying traumas. Not easy. But feasible, if the will is there. A 2-point agenda.

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Confronting Islamophobia
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 23 Apr 2018

They are up against emirs and pashas not gladly ceding privileges to a carpet dotted with imams. IS–not ISIS, ISL, DAESH–the Islamic State, backing politically-militarily the Islamic Caliphate (IC), understands this, and relates directly to imams. The West got lost in the image of Syria as a Western colony, which it also was from 1916 (Sykes-Picot).

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Structural Analysis and Chemical Models
Johan Galtung - TRANSCEND Media Service, 23 Apr 2018

1974 – The goal of this very simple exploration has been not to lose contact with the socially relevant. One socially relevant factor is what might be called structural imagination, where a look at a textbook of organic chemistry and a textbook of, say, sociology, gives a clear indication of where this factor is more developed. Social scientists talk about human and social variety, the specialists in organic chemistry not only talk about it, but present it and produce it. In this there is much to learn, but there is also much to learn from the way chemistry has managed to integrate empirical and constructive approaches.

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A Note on Mathematics and Curricula
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 2 Apr 2018

A study is going on comparing mathematics curricula in various countries. Interesting to see ‘what’ they have picked up, and ‘why.’ What follows is some reasoning about the what and the why.

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Meanwhile, Around the World
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 2 Apr 2018

As usual, many truths emerge, very much worth knowing. A world trying to substitute economic for military power should try to use better cultural power, also as spiritual power: “Pope Francis offers a different model of power”, with very very concrete proposals. May he reach the corridors of power; they are fortunate enough to co-exist in time with this giant.

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The World after Trump, Netanyahu and Rajoy
Johan Galtung - TRANSCEND Media Service, 2 Apr 2018

Easter 2018 – We may soon be witnessing those powerful politicians fizzling out. Trump is seen as “unleveled”, “incompetent”; Netanyahu is framed as “corrupt”; and Rajoy for pillaging the state to support his party. However, true or not, the real reasons are their failed policies.

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(Italiano) Non guerra al terrorismo ma dialogo per delle soluzioni
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 19 Mar 2018

9 marzo 2018 – Sono seduto a un tavolo da qualche parte in Afghanistan. Al tavolo ci sono tre taliban; pashtun come la gran parte dei taliban. La mia domanda iniziale è quella standard: “Come sarebbe l’Afghanistan dove vi piacerebbe vivere?”, con domande successive altrettanto standard: “Che cos’è il peggio che vi è capitato?” e “C’è stato un periodo buono in passato?”

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“Decline and Fall” of the US Empire – Introduction to the American Edition
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 19 Mar 2018

America itself may look at the map and discover that they are located in North America, with two neighbors, big in population and in land, and conclude that MEX-US-CAN, Mexuscan, makes a lot of sense. At least worth contemplating. Making USA not America First as somebody proclaims while producing America Last. But America Normal.

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A Stream of Consciousness about Stream of Time
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 12 Mar 2018

This essay about time is actually about human dignity. We are not drifting along something called time willy-nilly, like falling down pulled by something called gravity. Time is change; being masters of much change relevant to us we can create new contexts and call that moving forward in time, and recreate old contexts and call that moving backward in time.

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(Italiano) 15 casi di politica estera USA costruttiva / distruttiva
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 5 Mar 2018

Una teoria è qualcosa verificabile lungo i suoi margini (Quine), quel che se ne deduce; e per me il “margine” fondamentale è l’azione implicata e le sue conseguenze.

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Meanwhile, Around the World
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 5 Mar 2018

The world is getting worse. Violence used to cluster around the global power of USA and the regional power of Israel. Now two more:
“The unstoppable growing power of China.”
“Erdögan’s Neo-Ottomanism at a Dangerous Turning Point.” And “Military buildup on the reefs” in South China Sea.

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Not War on Terrorism but Dialogue for Solutions
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 26 Feb 2018

I am sitting somewhere in Afghanistan. Across the table are three Taliban; Pashtuns like most Taliban. My opening question is standard: “What does the Afghanistan look like where you would like to live?” with some equally standard follow-up questions: “What is the worst that happened to you?”, and “Was there a good period in the past?”

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Letter of Concern to Oxford University Press regarding Dr Jacques Leider and ORE Asian History Series
Noam Chomsky, Johan Galtung, Maung Zarni, et al. - TRANSCEND Media Service, 12 Feb 2018

5 Feb 2018 – Oxford University Press, Myanmar Genocide, & Its Choice of Dr Leider as the Expert on Rohingyas

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15 Cases: Constructive vs Destructive U.S. Foreign Policies
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 12 Feb 2018

The right column is sadly familiar; add more recent cases. The left column also carries an element of sadness but nothing really radical; more like common sense that could easily be translated into political practice. A theory is something tested along its edges (Quine); what you deduce from the theory–and to me the key “edge”–is its action-consequences.

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Missing: Conflict Literacy, Peace Literacy
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 5 Feb 2018

I feel sad. I feel betrayed. I am in the West, the West is in me. Unrealistic are the present US-EU policies. Whoever moves too far away from reality will be punished: USA by being isolated, EU by warfare turning potential friends into enemies. If they want to go down, continue. Alternative: join the world. So, permit me two wishes, two dreams.

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Meanwhile, Around the World
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 29 Jan 2018

One thing is wealth, another is life expectancy: Japan and Spain are Nos. 1 and 2, Norway No. 14, USA No. 25. No doubt the Japanese diet based on le cru, not le cuit, and the Spanish Mediterranean diet, also based on the sea, the plains and the mountains, play major roles… A small but important signal from La Nucia in Spain: no more permits to build new houses for some time. La Nucia wants to stop growing. 30,000 inhabitants in 2030 is the limit; with no limitation on restoration, beauty, art, well-being.

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(Italiano) Due modi d’essere Occidentali: Cristianesimo e Scienza
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 22 Jan 2018

5 gennaio 2018 – Due istituzioni basilari nella storia e nella vita individuale occidentali: il Cristianesimo – che offre Salvezza a coloro che seguono le leggi e i comandamenti, e la Scienza, che offre la Verità a coloro che credono alle leggi scientifiche.

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American Diplomacy with North Korea and Vietnam
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 8 Jan 2018

There seems to be a stalemate, with 8 million or so in and around Seoul being as hostages to North Korean artillery should there be a US attack. North Korea will not launch a first strike, but they want to show USA-Japan-the World that they are equal to USA in offensive capability with an invulnerability of force and value–people–unmatched in human history. Mantra: “1952” NEVER AGAIN!

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Two Ways of Being Western: Christianity and Science
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 1 Jan 2018

Two basic institutions in Western history and individual lives: Christianity offering Salvation to those following Laws, Commandments, and Science offering Truth to those who believe in scientific laws. After Enlightenment ushered in a godless world, one is waning and the other vexing, seen as antithetical to each other.

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Johan Galtung’s Acceptance Speech of the People’s Nobel in Sweden
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 11 Dec 2017

2 Dec 2017 – The People’s Peace Prize According to Nobel’s Will
Celebration-Seminar-Banquet, Orust Peace Movement at Svanvik, Sweden

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The TRANSCEND Method: Conflict Transformation by Peaceful Means
Johan Galtung | Governance and Social Development Resource Centre – TRANSCEND Media Service, 27 Nov 2017

The TRANSCEND Method is based on the central thesis that to prevent violence and develop the creative potential of a conflict, there has to be transformation. At the root of the method is the understanding of conflict as incompatible goals, meaning as a problem to be solved; not as incompatible parties (persons, countries etc.), meaning as one or more parties to be controlled (usually not oneself).

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Meanwhile, Around the World
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 27 Nov 2017

Trump is trumping himself by making America Last, not in the sense of long-lasting, but in the sense of going down. There is something to learn for those receptive to learning, and Islam puts it forcefully: togetherness, and sharing. We would add: as equally as possible. But Trump politics is the opposite of that, and the price is increasing. And so is today also much of Muslim politics, to their detriment.

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(Italiano) Frattanto, nel mondo…
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 30 Oct 2017

18 ottobre 2017 -C’è stato quello che può risultare il più violento massacro bianco USA di sempre: 59 uccisi dal 32° piano di un albergo di Las Vegas. L’assassino viene ora criminalizzato, psichiatrizzato, individualizzato, caratterizzato. Ma il massacro è stato sistematico; con potenti forze per la competizione e per la violenza; ne consegue come la competizione USA sia la più violenta.

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Mediation Culture for Conflict Transformation
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 30 Oct 2017

Four important concepts: mediation, culture, conflict, transformation. What do they stand for and how do they relate to each other?

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After Nuclear Disarmament – What?
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 16 Oct 2017

A timeless piece worth of reflection as the [im]morality and [il]legality of nuclear weaponry made it to the UNGA resulting in the approval of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons and the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to the International Campaign Against Nuclear Weapons-ICAN.

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Meanwhile, Around the World
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 16 Oct 2017

What a year, this 2017! 500 years ago Luther’s theses; 150 years ago Marx’ Das Kapital, 100 years ago Lenin’s Bolshevik Revolution; shaking Rome’s control of Europe, and Europe’s control of the world. Usually the Norwegian Nobel Peace Prizes are compliant with the foreign policy of Norway; this time not. The next step is to solve conflicts between nuclear powers, like USA vs N. Korea, West vs Russia.

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(Italiano) Mondo, dove stai andando?
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 2 Oct 2017

E’ morto Liu Xiaobo. Qual è la – non così occultata – verità su di lui?
Risposta: I suoi discorsi e scritti rivelano entusiasmo per i 100 anni di colonizzazione inglese di Hong Kong, auspicando 300 anni di colonizzazione della Cina, commemorando la guerra USA in Afghanistan, manifestando speranza nelle armi nucleari. Ha ottenuto il Premio Nobel per la Pace per la democratizzazione della Cina, ha avuto libertà di parola, ma il premio è stato inteso come una provocazione. Il premio avrebbe potuto essere assegnato fuor di dubbio alla loro Charta 08, non a Liu Xiaobo.

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(Italiano) Arrivederci, a… (chissà)!
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 2 Oct 2017

29 settembre 2017 – Ce l’abbiam fatta! Per cinquecento lunedì [dal 3 Marzo 2008] Antonio del Brasile-Portogallo ha pubblicato un mio editoriale dalla Norvegia e dal mondo – talora con un coautore. Con il valido sostegno degli altri membri del nostro comitato editoriale, Malvin Gattinger della Germania, Naakow Grant-Hayford del Ghana ed Erika Degortes dell’Italia. GRAZIE!

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(Italiano) Occidente, dove stai andando?
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 25 Sep 2017

L’Occidente ha convertito con successo la violenza diretta della guerra nella violenza strutturale dello sfruttamento, giustificata dalla violenza culturale, utilizzando, importando, rapinando risorse, lavorandole, esportando i prodotti derivati, intascandone il valore aggiunto, brevettando ciò che era stato appreso.

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(Italiano) USA–Dove state andando?
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 25 Sep 2017

12 settembre 2017 – “Pentagon Study Declares American Empire Is ‘Collapsing,” (Uno studio del Pentagono sostiene che l’impero americano sta crollando) è il titolo di un saggio di Nafeez Ahmed che fa un’analisi del suddetto studio. Sembra interessante. Sottotitolo: “Rapporto sollecita una massiccia espansione del complesso militare-industriale per garantire l’accesso globale alle risorse”. Suona famigliare.

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Turning Taboos into Constructive Discourses
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 25 Sep 2017

Freedom of expression can be severely curtailed by taboo zones in any country, outruling, sometimes also outlawing the unspeakable… To see Hitler, not his ideas, as evil, is itself an evil idea. Kill Hitler or he kills himself and the ideas are still alive, blowing in the air so to speak, in search of new carriers. The ideas have to be confronted and overcome; only killing individual carriers is naive.

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Good-Bye, See You Later
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 25 Sep 2017

We made it! Five hundred Mondays [from 3 Mar 2008] has Antonio from Brazil-Portugal posted an editorial by me from Norway and the world–sometimes with a coauthor. With the good support of the other members of our editorial committee, Malvin Gattinger from Germany, Naakow Grant-Hayford from Ghana and Erika Degortes from Italy. THANKS!

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The World–Where Are You Heading?
Johan Galtung - TRANSCEND Media Service, 18 Sep 2017

Jurisprudence and the legal model; why not, and the alternatives? Answer: A deeply rooted model seeing social reality as actors, individual or collective, responsible for their acts, answerable to the law. An indispensable perspective to be enriched with a systemic perspective: action is not only conditioned by actor intention and capability, but also by good and bad structures; hence changing bad structures, not only punishing illegal actors, or restoring them.

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(Italiano) Pace-Sviluppo-Ambiente: integrati?
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 11 Sep 2017

Questi sono gli obiettivi delle Nazioni Unite; l’Accademia di Hardanger li ha resi tre centri d’interesse. È sorto il problema: che cos’hanno in comune? Sono tre aspetti della stessa cosa? Se così, quale “cosa”? Si sono individuati ed esplorati quattro modi per cercare di rispondere. Sono quattro per via dei quattro modi di affrontare la realtà sociale.

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(Italiano) Nel mentre – In giro per il mondo
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 11 Sep 2017

Sembra esserci un nuovo sistema europeo per calcolare il PIL. Non solo vengono inclusi gli armamenti ma pure i fondi che vanno a ricerca e sviluppo finalizzati alla guerra. Inclusi sono pure prostituzione e droghe, sotto la voce “servizi”. E’ compresa qualunque cosa che viene offerta e richiesta per denaro. Come ci fa sentire questa novità sulla crescita economica? Di essere tra i “valori pro-capite” secondo i quali viene diviso questo mostro uscito da menti economicistiche malate?

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The West–Where Are You Heading?
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 11 Sep 2017

There are no chosen individuals, with promised status. We are all chosen as humans by the precious gift of life, with guaranteed survival, wellness, freedom of options, identity. In a nature with guaranteed diversity and symbiosis; not vicious human attacks on both.

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(Italiano) Spagna: dove stai andando?
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 4 Sep 2017

Per gli spagnoli è abituale aggiungere la parola “crisi” al nome del paese. Non sono i soli in ciò, può essere una consuetudine occidentale, uno di quei termini che sospingono avanti l’Occidente.

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(Italiano) Superare la paranoia verso la Russia
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 4 Sep 2017

È ora di aprire una porta positiva alla Russia con uno scambio a reciproco e uguale beneficio. Scambi di merci lavorate e di servizi, cooperazione nel sopprimere la speculazione e l’intossicazione da droghe. Soprattutto: rispetto reciproco, non solo vantaggi. Stima, simpatia. Affetto. RUSSIA: ja tjebjà ljubljù. Ti amo.

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(Italiano) Israele si avvia verso una soluzione?
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 4 Sep 2017

Il mondo vuole messaggi di pace da queste grandi, antiche fedi, non guerra perpetua. Questi messaggi potrebbero venire da Gerusalemme, mettendo in evidenza le tradizioni di solidarietà e tolleranza piuttosto che il contrario: le fedi abramitiche, che rinnegano la speranza del genere umano nella pace. Il mondo è in attesa. E’ tempo che accada, ora.

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USA–Where Are You Heading?
Johan Galtung - TRANSCEND Media Service, 4 Sep 2017

Declare the end of the empire and explore cooperation for mutual and equal benefit with all. Make them friends, not military “allies”. USA: you are so innovative; you have so incredibly much to offer.

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Peace-Development-Environment: Integrated?
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 28 Aug 2017

These are the goals of the United Nations; the Hardanger Academy made them three foci. The problem arose: what do they have in common? Are they three aspects of the same thing? If so, what is that “thing”? Four ways of trying to answer have been identified and explored. Four because of four ways of approaching social reality.

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Meanwhile, Around the World
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 21 Aug 2017

There seems to be a new European system for calculating the GNP. Not only is armament included, but also the money that goes into research and development for war. Also included are prostitution and drugs, as “services.” Anything offered and demanded in return for money is in. How does that make us feel about economic growth? To be among the “per capita” by which this monster coming out of sickening economistic minds is divided?

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Spain–Where Are You Heading?
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 14 Aug 2017

It is customary for Spaniards to add the word “crisis” to the name of the country. They are not alone in that, it may be a Western habit, one of those words driving the West on.

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(Italiano) Grande Storia dalla Norvegia
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 7 Aug 2017

Un ratto norvegese sicuro di sé, che abbandona una nave per costruirsi la propria: difesa difensiva, neutrale tra l’Occidente e il Resto; con posti di lavoro concreti, non solo lavori finalizzati a una minore disuguaglianza; vedere il buono in tutto, per progetti che connettono buono con buono. Una Svizzera, attenta anche a una pace positiva.

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Israel Heading for a Solution?
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 7 Aug 2017

The world wants messages of peace from these great, old faiths [Judaism, Christianity, Islam], not everlasting belligerence. That could emanate from Jerusalem, by highlighting the traditions of togetherness and tolerance rather than the opposite: the Abrahamic faiths betraying the human hope of peace. The world is waiting. Time for this to happen is now.

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Overcoming Paranoia about Russia
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 31 Jul 2017

Time to open the positive door to Russia with exchange for mutual and equal benefit. Trade in processed goods, and in services, cooperation in killing speculation and drug-poisoning. Above all, mutual respect not only benefit. Admiration, sympathy. Love. RUSSIA: ja tjebja ljubljo. I love you.

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(Italiano) La rivoluzione delle sessualità
Johan Galtung & Antonio C. S. Rosa | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 24 Jul 2017

Kinsey ha avuto un ruolo importante. Molto solido, molto empirico, vasto, esauriente, avversato da qualche chiesa e senz’altro da qualche patriarca. Ma ha prevalso la scienza… Purtroppo si confonde generalmente il sesso con l’amore, sia in letteratura sia nella realtà. Il sesso è un piacere effimero dei genitali — di qualunque specie. L’amore è emozione, energia, sinergia fra due esseri umani. Amore e sesso sono complemento reciproco ma non si sostituiscono l’un l’altro, essendo di natura squisitamente differente.

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Macro-History from Norway
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 24 Jul 2017

The US Trump ship is sinking and does not serve Norway’s interests. Time for the Norwegian rat to jump ship boarding increasingly accepted EU to build its own ship: defensive defense, neutral between West and Rest; with positions, not only jobs for less inequality; seeing the good in all, for projects linking good with good.

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The Sexualities Revolution
Johan Galtung and Antonio C. S. Rosa – TRANSCEND Media Service, 17 Jul 2017

Kinsey played a major role. Very solid, very empirical, vast, comprehensive, fought by some churches and no doubt by some patriarchs. But science prevailed… Unfortunately sex is generally confused with love both in literature and in reality. Sex is ephemeral pleasure of the genitalia—any genitalia. Love is emotion, energy, synergy between two human beings. Love and sex complement but do not replace each other, being of utterly different natures.

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(Italiano) Freud-Einstein sulla Pace
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 10 Jul 2017

“Perché la guerra?” era il titolo della corrispondenza tra Sigmund Freud e Albert Einstein, 1932. Tra poco saranno trascorsi 85 anni. Che cosa possiamo ancora imparare da questi giganti, e che cosa avrebbero potuto essi stessi imparare in questo lasso di tempo.

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(Italiano) Società pacifiche: dove si trovano?
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis, 10 Jul 2017

Possiamo tentare di stabilire le caratteristiche del loro essere pacifiche. O possiamo cominciare con l’identificare le società bellicose e poi considerare le società pacifiche come loro negazione. Proviamo intanto questa.

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“Modern” Business Owns You
Johan Galtung and Malvin Gattinger – TRANSCEND Media Service, 10 Jul 2017

The housing market used to be a way for people to organize themselves and share costs and risks. Now in bigger cities it seems to be mainly about selling people to housing corporations. The online markets used to be extensions of “real” ones, selling goods and services. Now the central market is ‘attention,’ essentially selling people to advertisement companies.

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(Italiano) Povertà rurale? Cooperative!
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 3 Jul 2017

Lo scopo primario delle cooperative rurali è garantire il sostentamento degli associati condividendo i rischi, e i proventi. Ne sono membri sia agricoltori sia lavoranti con capacità di assumersi rischi e di condivisione. Possono aderire poveri o disoccupati urbani, quanto meno ottenendo cibo in cambio di lavoro.

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(Italiano) Il genere umano nel 2050 – Un ambiente per sviluppare la pace
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 3 Jul 2017

Il 2050 è soltanto 33 anni avanti; 33 anni indietro sta il 1984 di Orwell. Sono successe tante cose. Il muro di Berlino è caduto nel 1989; hanno fatto seguito l’Impero Sovietico, l’Unione Sovietica e il Comunismo. L’Impero Usa è decaduto, vecchi clienti si sono rifiutati di combattere le guerre degli Stati Uniti ma non quelle dell’Unione Europea, incrinando la NATO.

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Peaceful Societies – Where Are They?
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 3 Jul 2017

There are many of them–of different kinds–in world geography. We can try to identify the characteristics of their peacefulness. Or we can start by identifying belligerent societies and then see peaceful societies as their negations. Let us try this one first.

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Freud-Einstein on Peace
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 26 Jun 2017

“Why War?” was the title of an interchange of letters between Sigmund Freud and Albert Einstein in 1932, 85 years ago. What can we still learn from these giants, and what might they have learned in the meantime? Let us look at their approaches, as fellow human beings searching for answers to a question for humankind at all times: the curse of war.

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Rural Poverty? Cooperatives!
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 19 Jun 2017

The primary purpose of rural cooperatives is to feed themselves by sharing risks, and share gains on top of that. Members are both farmers and farm workers with risk-absorbing capacity and sharing. Poor and unemployed from towns and cities may join, at least getting food in exchange for work.

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(Italiano) Il calendario ONU: coscienza del mondo
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 12 Jun 2017

È sorprendente. Le Nazioni Unite hanno decenni, anni, settimane e giorni, dedicati a valori, obiettivi e interessi, più di quanto ne siamo consapevoli. Lo si confronti con gli stati nazionali, di solito con un solo giorno, il loro giorno nazionale per la celebrazione di nessun altro che sé stessi… Siamo una Umanità in un mondo con molte linee di frattura; che la coscienza ONU sia la nostra.

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(Italiano) Intanto, in giro per il mondo
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 12 Jun 2017

Trump viola le norme internazionali come se non esistessero, che uccide in Yemen-Pakistan-Somalia con droni-bombardamenti-assalti, nonostante non fosse coinvolto in un conflitto armato né attaccato da nessuno di quei paesi. Quindi, nessun diritto di auto-difesa. Pura aggressione.

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Humankind 2050 – Peace Development Environment
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 12 Jun 2017

2050 is only 33 years ahead; 33 years back is Orwell’s 1984. Much happened. The Berlin Wall collapsed in 1989; the Soviet Empire, Soviet Union and Communism followed. The US Empire declined, former clients refused to fight US wars, but not EU wars; eroding NATO. The Cold war, threatening humanity with a nuclear arms race that in a hot war could obliterate the planet, melted away with a whimper.

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The UN Calendar: The World’s Conscience
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 7 Jun 2017

It is amazing. The United Nations have decades, years, weeks and days, dedicated to more values, goals and concerns than most of us are aware of. Compare it to nation-states usually with only one day, their day, their national day, celebrating nobody but themselves… We are one humanity in one world with many faultlines; let the UN conscience be ours.

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(Italiano) I Baschi in Spagna: pace positiva?
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 29 May 2017

La Spagna è in una transizione che richiederà un po’ di tempo: dalla “España: Una, Grande, Libre” alla “España: Una Comunidad de naciones“. La pace positiva si struttura sulla pace negativa, costruendo sulla riconciliazione dei traumi e la risoluzione dei conflitti. C’è da fare molto lavoro. Ma la Spagna, da vera comunità di nazioni, sarà di ispirazione per tutto il mondo.

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(Italiano) Quel che manca: la creatività politica
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 29 May 2017

L’impedimento sta nella nostra immaginazione politica così limitata. E’ necessario crescere, così che le visioni del mondo si aprano nelle nostre menti, siano condivise con altri in nuovi modi di dialogare, concretizzate in un nuovo agire. Possiamo riuscire se lo vogliamo. E lo vorremo se liberiamo l’immaginazione.

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Meanwhile, Around the World
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 29 May 2017

The basic demands of Pyongyang can easily be met: a peace treaty, normalization of diplomatic relations to Seoul and USA, a nuclear-free, UN-inspected Korean peninsula. An afternoon job for peace, USA?

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The Basques in Spain: Positive Peace?
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 22 May 2017

Spain is in a process that will take some time, from “España: Una, Grande, Libre” to “España: Una Comunidad de naciones”—“Spain: One, Great, Free” to “Spain: A community of nations.” Positive peace builds on negative peace building on conciliation of traumas and solution of conflicts. There is much work to be done, but Spain as a true community of nations will inspire the whole world.

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(Italiano) Il Disturbo da Esuberanza Post-Gloria (PGED)
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 15 May 2017

Questo si apre al comportamentismo : evitare il trauma, cercare la gloria. Ma l’idea va più in profondità. Un trauma grave e ripetuto comporta un disturbo da stress, non solo stress. Una gloria intensa e ripetuta può comportare un disturbo da esuberanza: facciamo altre guerre per mietere altre vittorie! Non solo per difesa!

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(Italiano) “Politica interna mondiale”
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 15 May 2017

Un’attenzione mondiale per le comunità più miserevoli, risollevare la parte di umanità più a fondo, questo è il mondo solidaristico di cui abbiamo bisogno. Fare questo sarebbe già Weltinnenpolitik. Oggi, non aspettando 50 e più anni.

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Missing: Political Creativity
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 15 May 2017

Overfed with the developed-developing dichotomy, many believe that the former have no problems whereas the latter have only problems. Much better is a Yin-Yang perspective: something is missing in all; something has been accomplished by all. The limitation is in our limited political imagination. Grow so that world visions will open up in our minds, shared with others in new speeches, enacted in new acts. We can if we will. And we will if we imagine.

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The Post Glory Exuberance Disorder-PGED
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 8 May 2017

This opens for behaviorism: avoid trauma, seek glory. But the idea is deeper. Deep-repeated trauma leads to stress disorder, not only stress. Deep-repeated glory may lead to exuberance disorder: let us have more wars to enjoy more victories! Not only for defense!

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(Italiano) Ridurre la violenza urbana
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 1 May 2017

Per ridurre la violenza diretta nelle città dobbiamo convertirci da una cultura della violenza urbana ad una cultura della pace urbana e dalla violenza strutturale urbana ad una struttura di pace. I nomi delle strade non devono glorificare guerre ed eroi violenti bensì la pace e i suoi eroi, sovente donne. Si spostino i monumenti di guerrieri a cavallo nei pressi dei cimiteri a mo’ di sepolture simboliche.

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(Italiano) Il Messaggio di Pasqua
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 1 May 2017

Dagli USA di Trump non è stata resurrezione, ma morte. 59 missili Tomahawk per la Siria, la “madre di tutte le bombe” per l’Afghanistan; stati musulmani. Entrambi gli attacchi sono stati giustificati con menzogne. La vecchia menzogna che l’11 settembre 2001 aveva avuto origine in Afghanistan, la nuova menzogna che Assad aveva deliberatamente fatto uso di sarin [i]. La contro-narrazione può reggere – che gli USA hanno fornito il gas e hanno usato l’incidente quale pretesto per attaccare. Vediamo se USA-NATO acconsentono a che venga fatta una inchiesta; se avessero la coscienza pulita, dovrebbero acconsentire.

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“World Domestic Politics”
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 1 May 2017

A world focus on the world’s most miserable communities, to lift up the bottom of humanity, is a welfare world we need. Doing that would already be Weltinnenpolitik. Today, not waiting 50+ more years.

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A Structural Theory of Aggression (1964)
Johan Galtung - TRANSCEND Media Service, 1 May 2017

This theoretical essay is concerned with the conditions of aggression. We shall define aggression somewhat vaguely as ‘drives towards change, even against the will of others’. The extreme forms of this phenomenon are crimes, including homicide, between individuals; revolutions, including elimination, between groups; and wars, including genocide, between nations. These forms make aggression negative and problematic, a cause of concern and prevention. But one can also turn the coin and look at the other face: aggression as the driving force in history, as the motivational energy that moves mountains.

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Reducing Urban Violence
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 24 Apr 2017

World Forum on Urban Violence, Madrid, 19-21 April 2017 – To reduce direct violence in cities we have to move from urban violence culture to an urban peace culture and from urban structural violence to a structure of peace. Street names should not glorify wars and violent heroes but peace and their heroines, often women. Move warrior on horseback monuments close to the cemetery for symbolic burial.

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(Italiano) Può darci pace la scienza empirica?
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 17 Apr 2017

Il dito di Galileo indica due pilastri della scienza: la conoscenza scientifica deve basarsi sull’osservazione o la sperimentazione di fatti empirici; e la matematica è il linguaggio usato per esporre questa conoscenza scientifica. Prima obiezione: soltanto il passato può produrre fatti empirici; il che limita quello che potrebbe essere o che dovrebbe essere a ciò che già è manifesto in alcuni fatti. Ma gli esseri umani sono in grado di trascendere il passato e creare fatti nuovi.

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(Italiano) Frattanto, per il mondo …
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 17 Apr 2017

Cominciando dall’Unione Europea, 60enne, che rende importanti i piccoli stati (il Lussemburgo!) rendendoli membri di qualcosa più grosso, ma ridimensiona stati più grandi, addirittura imperiali, rendendoli semplici “membri”.

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The Easter Message
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 17 Apr 2017

From Trump’s USA was not resurrection, but death. 59 Tomahawk missiles for Syria, the “mother of all bombs” for Afghanistan; Muslim states. Both attacks were based on lies: the old lie that 9/11 had its origin in Afghanistan, the new lie that Assad deliberately had used sarin . The counter-narrative–that USA had provided the gas and used the accident as pretext for an attack–may stand. Let us see if USA-NATO accept an investigation; with a clean conscience, they would.

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Can Empirical Science Give Us Peace?
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 10 Apr 2017

Galileo’s finger points to two pillars for science: scientific knowledge must be based on empirical facts observed or by experiments; and the language to express scientific knowledge is mathematics. First objection: only the past can produce empirical facts; that limits what might or ought to be to what already have been facts. But humans are capable of transcending the past, and create new facts.

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(Italiano) Violenza contro le donne: Pace positiva
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 3 Apr 2017

E in quanto ai monumenti: per favore, non l’uomo a cavallo, che brandisce la morte. Ci siano monumenti alle donne che fanno sbocciare nuova vita. Il punto fondamentale è aprire la mente maschile a un “noi insieme” per migliori matrimoni, e anche per cambiare la loro mentalità “noi contro di loro”. Meglio che trattare le donne come serve-prostitute pagate in moneta di “sicurezza” per rigovernare le stoviglie, lavare la roba, occuparsi dei bebé e insieme dei bambini, degli infermi e dei vecchi, e condividere la loro gratitudine.

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(Italiano) La politica e l’economia mondiale in questo momento
Johan Galtung | Centro Studi Sereno Regis – TRANSCEND Media Service, 3 Apr 2017

Un altro fattore chiave è la speculazione nell’economia finanziaria – in contrapposizione all’investimento nell’economia reale – consistente in serie di prodotti derivati con super-commissioni. Se i prodotti derivati dalla droga sono illegali e biasimati, perché non farlo anche con i derivati finanziari?

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Meanwhile, Around the World
Johan Galtung – TRANSCEND Media Service, 3 Apr 2017

Starting with EU at 60, making small states (Luxembourg!) big by being members of something bigger, but making bigger, even imperial, states smaller by being “members”… UK outside and France inside are now paying the heavy immigration price for devastation wrought by their empires; with no EU solidarity… Trump is seen as psychotic with crazy policies: military up $54 billion at the expense of the poor, health, environment, climate, arts, culture. The US killings all over were not seen as crazy, but Trump kills at the cost of basics. He may not last 100 days, impeached or-?

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